Sunbright Power Co.,limited possess the advanced technology and top equipment, the company has co-founded with the Fudan University, "Fudan University – Sunbright Power Co.,limited Electrochemical Energy Research Center" , also cooperation with Wuhan University in research focused on super-batteries used in electric vehicles, and together with the Zhejiang University in focused research in ultra-low temperature resistance batteries. As well as powerful alliance and close technology partner with the world's leading battery manufacturer BE Company in the Australian. Through independent research, cooperative research, and absorbed technology from foreign battery manufacturers, Sunbright built many market oriented products for our esteemed customers.
The advantage of substrate configuration of triple junction Battery Manufacturer is that it can better adapt to the optimal deposition temperature of A - Si: H ..The deposition temperature of the absorption layer in the upper layer configuration needs to be limited to < 200 c to avoid thermal damage to the p - I interface [ 75 ], while the n - I - p type substrate configuration can allow the preparation of low band gap absorption layers at high temperatures.
The optimized process of triple junction Battery Manufacturer is similar to A - Si: H / A - SiGe: H laminated Battery Manufacturer. The manufacturer of amorphous silicon thin film solar cell is carefully evaluating the optimal combination between performance improvement and structural complexity of triple junction Battery Manufacturer in order to expect the highest cost - to - performance ratio O and external parameters of 188.8.131.52 high conversion efficiency Battery Manufacturer.
The upper layer configuration and substrate configuration of amorphous silicon thin film solar Battery Manufacturer prepared in the laboratory have achieved good external parameters, as shown in actual .3.The absorption layer of the multi-junction cell is thin, and the conversion efficiency is reduced by about 10 % due to the photo-induced attenuation effect.However, the absorption layer of the single junction cell is thicker, and the photo-induced attenuation effect reduces the conversion efficiency by about 15 %.Open circuit voltage.However, the short-circuit current density JSC of single-junction Battery Manufacturer is higher than that of multi-junction Battery Manufacturer.In practical applications, the external parameters of multi-junction batteries are more advantageous than those of single-junction batteries. Lower current can reduce the resistance loss of electrodes ( especially transparent conductive oxide TCO ), while higher output voltage facilitates the design of components.
Computer simulation has become an indispensable tool for the study of amorphous silicon thin film solar Battery Manufacturer. It can not only obtain a better understanding of cell characteristics, but also optimize material parameters and solar cell structure.Several computer programs can be used to model amorphous silicon thin film solar Battery Manufacturer, microcrystalline silicon thin film solar Battery Manufacturer or non - microcrystalline laminated Battery Manufacturer.Moreover, the cost of computer simulation has obvious advantages over experimental equipment as the price of computer hardware decreases and the function increases, as well as the price of experimental equipment increases.
Amorphous silicon thin film solar cell assembly
The power provided by small-area solar Battery Manufacturer is not enough to meet the requirements of actual photovoltaic applications, so solar Battery Manufacturer need to be connected in series or in parallel to form modules to achieve sufficient power and voltage.The key step in the actual industrial production of amorphous silicon thin film solar Battery Manufacturer is to develop a monolithic series process for Battery Manufacturer modules [ 7 ].It is an important feature of amorphous silicon thin film solar cell module technology to connect Battery Manufacturer in series as modules for easy application in the fabrication process' as shown in the actual .17.
The solar cell performance optimized in laboratory size ( area in the range of 1100 cm2 ) is difficult to achieve at the component level ( area > 0.3 mz ).The difference between component performance and laboratory Battery Manufacturer performance is mainly caused by inherent loss and process-related loss.］：
Inherent Loss: Inherent Loss of Interconnected Batteries During Conversion from Single Batteries to Large Area Assemblies' In the process of single-chip series connection of a single Battery Manufacturer, joule loss will occur in transparent conductive oxide TCO square resistance and contact resistance, while area loss will occur in Battery Manufacturer interconnection and contact electrode area.
Process - related losses: Special laboratory processes do not consider complexity and cost, while the transfer of laboratory technologies to actual production processes needs to focus on cost-effectiveness issues, resulting in certain process-related losses in the performance of components produced on a large scale.The specific process-related losses are mainly due to the use of non-optimal commercial TCO and the application of large area deposition technology with low thickness uniformity.
The inherent loss and process-related loss make the performance of a single Battery Manufacturer have a certain statistical distribution, and reduce the conversion efficiency level of components, and the cumulative effect reduces the conversion efficiency of components by more than 30 % compared with the laboratory size.However, amorphous silicon thin film solar cell module manufacturers are trying to minimize the loss of conversion efficiency.For example, a triple junction Battery Manufacturer module made by Uni - Solar in the United States has controlled the loss of conversion efficiency at 16 %, minimizing the loss of uniformity in the thickness of the absorbing layer and the loss of [ ] FL due to the current grid line.The A - Si: H / A - SiGe: H / A - SiGe: H Battery Manufacturer prepared by UNI - SOLAR was completely laminated and packaged. The substrate was deposited on stainless steel sheets with an area of 905 cm2, an initial conversion efficiency of 11.2 %, and a stable conversion efficiency of 10. The volt-ampere characteristic curve of the triple junction Battery Manufacturer assembly is shown in the actual .18.
The best performance of the upper layer configuration single junction amorphous silicon thin film solar cell module was prepared by Japanese Zhong Yuan and deposited on 3917 cm2 glass substrate, with an initial conversion efficiency of 10.7 %.
For the reported conversion efficiency of solar Battery Manufacturer, attention should be paid to distinguish the differences:
The small Battery Manufacturer recorded in the laboratory is smaller than 1cm2 in size and has no monolithic integration.R & D Module, size < 0.1M2, without lamination packaging, without mass production;Commercial components.
Measurement of component conversion efficiency should be carried out under standard test conditions ( STC ): irradiance 1kW / m2, solar spectrum AMI. 5, ambient temperature 25 C ..However, components installed on site cannot operate under STC conditions.In order to objectively compare the actual performance of different technical components, it is necessary to use the energy production rate per unit component area at a certain solar irradiance.As for the comparison of the energy production rate of amorphous silicon thin-film solar cell modules with other technologies, Shah et al. gave a better discussion [ 132 \ The following text is reproduced with Wiley's permission.
Energy production rate
Users of solar cell modules can more practically judge the power generation performance of modules and determine the cost recovery of photovoltaic power generation systems through the energy production rate.Field tests [ 133 ] were conducted in Mallorca, Spain, and Oxford, UK, and the STC conversion efficiency and effective conversion efficiency of different component types per year were obtained, as shown in actual. 4.The annual solar irradiance in Mallorca and Oxford is 1700 kWhm _ 2a - 1 and 1022 kWhm _ 2 plant 1, respectively.Unlike STC conversion efficiency, the effective conversion efficiency is the ratio of energy production rate and corresponding irradiance, and takes the average value of the whole year, so the effective conversion efficiency includes the effects of temperature, solar irradiance and spectral distribution changes on various technologies.At the same time, the effective conversion efficiency is also corrected by inverter loss.
The actual. 4 summary of component performance shows only the typical difference in actual application of component products under the same climatic conditions, and cannot be regarded as the overall evaluation of relevant technologies or manufacturers.The energy production rate of the components is more or less consistent with the STC conversion efficiency derived from the relevant sample data sheet, but there are also some obvious mismatches.The possible reasons for the mismatch between the energy production rate and STC conversion efficiency are:
The corresponding spectral changes caused by seasonal changes;
Human light intensity;
Stacked Battery Manufacturer rely on current matching of spectral distribution. For example, Uni - Solar US 64 triple junction Battery Manufacturer are more sensitive to current matching and have a lower energy production rate than ASE 30 stacked cell assemblies.
To sum up, STC conversion efficiency can be used as an evaluation parameter for component quality, but the decisive parameter for measuring component performance should be energy production rate.In this case, relative performance is required, which is defined as the annual energy production rate divided by the rated power of the component in kWp.The relative performance indicates the ratio of the output power of the component to the rated power, which is in fact equal to the h / a time when the component gives the normalized STC power.Due to the above-mentioned dependence on output power, the relative performance of the silicon-based thin film solar cell module exceeds that of the crystalline silicon solar cell module.
In 2004, the total global capacity of commercial amorphous silicon thin film solar cell modules was about 75 MWP, while the actual output was over 25 MWP.The largest and most advanced manufacturer of amorphous silicon thin film solar cell modules is:
UNI - SOLAR, 30 MWP production line;
Japan Zhong Yuan, 20m WP production line;
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Japan, 10 MWP Production Line.
Uni - Solar's new eco - series components for the market are based on flexible substrate triple junction Battery Manufacturer technology, with a conversion efficiency of 7.4 %.The laminated package of the assembly uses DuPont Tef Zel fluoropolymer instead of glass plates.and is fixed by an aluminum frame.Both the commercial components produced by Zhong Yuan and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries are based on the single-junction amorphous silicon thin-film solar cell technology and are packaged with glass plates and aluminum frames. The conversion efficiency of the components with the area of 0.95m2 of Zhong Yuan is 6.3 %, while that of the components with the area of 1.5m2 of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries is 6.4 %: ⑽.
The technical route of commercial amorphous silicon thin film solar cell module is divided into glass plate package [ 11' 13 < ] and flexible substrate package [ 77 ].Both technical routes include the following main process steps:
The contact electrode is deposited in large area, the front electrode is transparent conductive oxide TC, and the back mirror is usually a double-layer film of metal and TCO.Large area deposition of amorphous silicon A - Si: H layer;
The contact electrode and A - Si: H layer are laser scribed in series on a single piece of Battery Manufacturer ( currently only used for production on glass substrates );The final package includes lamination, application of electrical connections, and framing.
The most important condition for thin film solar cell manufacturers to maintain their competitiveness is technical independence, and the production scale is very important for economic benefits.Manufacturers with larger capacity can produce assembly products with shorter energy payback period, while the energy consumption of flexible substrate assembly heating is lower than that of glass substrate assembly.
Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition
The core technology of amorphous silicon thin film solar cell module production is the deposition equipment of amorphous silicon A - Si: H layer. At present, all module manufacturers use plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition PECVD, and PECVD deposition equipment often determines the production rate, cell design, film quality and thickness uniformity.The so-called " plasma box" reaction chamber design is widely used in PECVD production equipment.The plasma box forms a closed and separately pumped space in the deposition apparatus.The plasma is confined between the electrode and the substrate, the temperature is kept uniform, and the deposition space is protected from contamination by impurities entering from outside the plasma box.Parts other than the substrate are also exposed to plasma, and a - si: h layers can also be deposited, and in-situ cleaning by plasma etching can remove these a - si: h layers.
Since several layers of A - Si: H thin films need to be deposited continuously, PECVD deposition process has two different reaction chamber designs, batch type and online type [ 18 ].
Batch type: The batch type in which several substrates are deposited simultaneously can be a single reaction chamber or multiple reaction chambers.The KAI equipment in Oricon, Switzerland, uses a single reaction chamber to deposit all thin films [ 21 ], while the cluster PECVD uses multiple reaction chambers to deposit different A - Si: H layers.
In - line: In - line PECVD with multiple reaction chambers deposits a thin film on a moving substrate.The length of each reaction chamber needs to be carefully designed so that the required thickness of each film layer can be deposited.U.S. UNI - SOLAR's continuous roll-to-roll process is a potential on-line technology. Flexible substrate spools are transported through several PECVD reaction chambers after being unfolded, each layer of film is deposited on a moving substrate, and the spools after deposition are rolled up again.
Cleaning the deposition reaction chamber is an important part of the production process.During the deposition of the A - Si: H layer, the surface of other components ( e.g., electrodes ) other than the substrate in the reaction chamber will also be covered with the A - SUH layer.During the continuous production of the module, the thickness of the A - Si: H film will increase until the critical thickness is reached. At this time, these unwanted A - Si: H deposits will produce certain particles and form defects in the solar cell structure.Therefore, it is necessary to regularly clean the inside of PECVD reaction chamber to remove surface deposition.The deposition reaction chamber is usually open in the air, and the internal components are subjected to chemical cleaning and sandblasting.However, baking can remove air pollution adsorbed on the inner wall of the reaction chamber during maintenance.Since these operations significantly reduce the normal operation time of PECVD equipment, new methods such as plasma cleaning can be applied to accelerate the cleaning process.However, plasma cleaning will use more expensive gases, such as SFS, NF3 or 0 Bi, and a high-intensity scrubber will be required to process these gases.These gases have a high chemical activity and will corrode pumps, pipelines and gas cleaners, shortening the life of these components. The use of these environmentally unfriendly plasma cleaning gases requires additional precautions.Since the investment cost of PECVD production equipment is very high and the operation time of the equipment needs to be increased as much as possible, dirty parts should be replaced by cleaning parts to separate the cleaning process from the operation of the equipment.5.6.4 Transparent conductive oxide deposition For amorphous silicon thin film solar cell modules prepared on glass substrates, transparent conductive oxide TCO becomes a key part that determines the overall performance of the modules and reduces the cost.Most component manufacturers strive to deposit TCO by themselves, thus being independent of relevant suppliers.Having its own TCO deposition equipment enables these component manufacturers to control the quality of TCO, and the biggest challenge in preparing TCO layers is to achieve large area ( > lm2 ) deposition.Up to now, atmospheric chemical vapor deposition ( apcvd ) is a standard process for depositing s NO2: f on large-area glass plates " _ 112", while low-pressure chemical vapor deposition ( LPC VD [ 19 ] and sputtering [ 2 ] processes have successfully developed large-area ZnO deposition.
It is necessary to limit the width of the Battery Manufacturer in the assembly and reduce the current through the TCO layer in order to reduce the joule loss of TCO.The higher the conductivity of TCO, the wider the allowed cell width, and the less laser scribing is required, so the conductivity of TCO top electrode affects the design and cost of components.
The use of stainless steel sheet substrates does not allow single-chip series connection, so the module consists of a large area of solar Battery Manufacturer, resulting in a very high current.In order to limit the high resistance loss of TCO top electrode, U.S. Uni - Solar fabricated a three-junction Battery Manufacturer with high open-circuit voltage and low short-circuit current density of 5.6.5 monolithic integration
In the process of preparing the solar cell module, the substrate needs to be monolithically integrated, and laser scribing steps are respectively performed after depositing transparent conductive oxide TCO, amorphous silicon A - Si: H layer and back contact.Laser scribing selectively removes 50150 wide narrow lines of material to limit area loss while defining the size of a single cell.Pulsed Nd: YAG lasers are usually used to scribe films, and laser scribing is the most time-consuming step in the entire assembly production process.After completing the single-chip series connection, the assembly only needs two buses to connect the first Battery Manufacturer and the last Battery Manufacturer, respectively, and then to the junction box.
The shunting phenomenon of amorphous silicon thin-film solar Battery Manufacturer will seriously affect the yield of the whole production process. The shunting particles formed in the device may come from the substrate or the local defect area of amorphous silicon A - Si: H during the deposition process.The steps of transparent conductive oxide TCO deposition, Si deposition and laser scribing are all easy to form shunts.Through an effective cleaning process, shunting can be avoided to a large extent.If necessary, the shunt repair method using components can improve the yield.Specific shunt repair methods include temperature sensitive etching and reverse bias treatment o 5.6.7 laminated packaging
The final product of amorphous silicon thin film solar Battery Manufacturer must be protected by lamination packaging to isolate the impact of outdoor installation on the Battery Manufacturer and prolong the service life of the components.Among several lamination packaging methods, the most commonly used method for glass panel assembly production is to cover the back surface of the assembly with EVA and use the glass panel as the front surface.However, components plated with transparent conductive oxide TCO glass substrates are susceptible to varying degrees of electrochemical corrosion [ 135 ].In the environment of outdoor practical application, higher output voltage, elevated temperature and humid climate will significantly degrade the performance of the components.The combination of Na accumulated near the interface and moisture invading the assembly from the edge will cause S NO2 contact to delaminate from the glass.Methods to reduce the corrosion of these components include:
Restrain water invasion;
limiting the voltage of the component array;
Use low alkali glass or high resistivity glass;
Increasing the adhesion of TCO to glass surface;
* Replace S NO2 with ZnO as transparent conductive contact.
In the case of flexible substrates, EVA / TEF ZEL combination protection assemblies are usually used.Tef zel fluoropolymer is sometimes required to be applied to both surfaces of the assembly simultaneously and thick enough to ensure the protection of the laminated package.Such a laminated package would greatly increase the material cost of the component.
With the popularization of amorphous silicon thin film solar cell module in building applications, people pay more attention to the design of the frame to improve the aesthetic appearance of the module in glass curtain wall applications.
Roll - to - roll process
Akzo Nobel of the Netherlands has developed a new preparation method of amorphous silicon thin-film solar cell module [ 136 ], which realizes the automatic roll-to-roll process of flexible amorphous silicon thin-film solar cell module. Flexible thin-film solar cell module with soft, light weight and low cost has a wide range of application fields [ 137 ].
Akzo Nobel's roll-to-roll process is based on the concept of temporary upper layer and combines the technical advantages of upper layer configuration and substrate configuration. It not only uses the monolithic integration process of upper layer configuration technology to prepare a high-quality transparent conductive oxide TCO layer by atmospheric chemical vapor deposition ( APCVD ), but also combines the roll-to-roll process of substrate configuration technology. The process steps of the related preparation technology are as follows:
After the aluminum foil is cleaned, it is heated to about 500 C, and then 700 nm thick S NO2: F is deposited at a high rate of about 0.1 mm / s by APCVD process as TCO layer. The natural texture of TCO enhances the light trapping effect of solar Battery Manufacturer.The amorphous silicon A - Si: H active layer is deposited on the glass / TCO superstructure by RFPECVD with radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Currently, the development is still focused on P - I - N single junction devices.
depositing reflective back contact;
laminating a PET polymer carrier film;removing the temporary superstructure by wet etching;
The pattern laser scribing is carried out between each process step to realize single-chip series connection.Contact electrodes and protective laminated packaging are used.
In order to demonstrate the production capacity with sufficient yield and normal operation time, the test line of the roll-to-roll process has a roll 35 cm wide.The equipment of the test line includes:
APCVD for depositing TCO;
PECVD for depositing a - Si: H layer;
Sputtering ZnO: Coating Equipment for Al, Ag and A1;
a laminated device subjected to extrusion treatment;
Wet etching equipment;
Neutralize the cleaning tank;Roll - to - roll series integration and lamination unit.
In the whole process of roll-to-roll integration, laser scribing of series integration of components is the current step to limit the production rate.The test line also uses several diagnostic tools, such as PECVD equipment.
Monitor and control the conveying parameters ( tension, speed and running length ) of the drum;Deposition process ( air pressure, flow rate, RF power and drum temperature );* Monitor the output parameters to directly confirm the film formation process.
At present, Akzo Nobel uses the device structure of P - I - N type single junction amorphous silicon thin film solar cell to demonstrate the process flow, and has prepared components of two sizes, the laboratory size is 10cmxlocm, and the test line component size is 30 plus 30cm.A typical test line assembly has an aperture area conversion efficiency of 6.3 0.2 %.The focus of the next development is to skillfully accumulate A - Si: H / A - Si: H laminated Battery Manufacturer to improve the stability after photo aging and to separate the interconnected parts from each other by a greater distance.Akzo Nobel's laboratory laminated Battery Manufacturer has a stable conversion efficiency of 7.2 % of aperture area' initial state and volt-ampere characteristic curve after 719 h photo-aging treatment as shown in the actual .21.
As the amorphous silicon thin film solar cell technology can be used to prepare glass components or flexible components with high mass production rate, the conversion efficiency temperature coefficient of the components is much lower than that of crystalline silicon solar Battery Manufacturer, and they have excellent performance at higher operating temperatures, these advantages make the amorphous silicon thin film solar Battery Manufacturer have a very wide application market:
Electronic consumer goods: Small - sized amorphous silicon solar Battery Manufacturer provide power for electronic consumer goods such as hand-held calculators and electronic watches, which can reduce the number of button cell replacements.Small components with output power in the 350W P range can also be used in portable Battery Manufacturer chargers, electric car tops, field tents, etc.
BIPV: Amorphous silicon thin film solar Battery Manufacturer can be used in residential and commercial grid-connected power generation systems, especially BIPV.This application requires the assembly to have a 20 - year output power guarantee and can be structurally and aesthetically integrated on roofs and glass curtain walls.By applying laser technology in the production of components, partially transparent components can be prepared.These products will create new possibilities for BIPV applications due to their aesthetic appearance and environment-friendly characteristics.
Large - area grid-connected power generation system: In 2003, U.S. UNI - Solar's 4800 flexible solar cell modules were installed in California, providing 500 kWp of power for oil operations. The modules were 40 cm wide and 540 cm long and were installed with metal frames.The world's largest array of amorphous silicon thin-film solar Battery Manufacturer is 1MWP, capable of delivering 1mkwh of electricity every year. The installation was completed in Butenwiesen, a suburb of Munich, Germany, in early 2005. About 10000 single-junction upper-layer components were provided by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries of Japan.As shown in actual .22.
Off - grid power generation system: The solar energy system rated 3050 WP is suitable for off-grid power generation applications in remote areas and can solve the lighting problems of residents and construction sites without connecting to the power grid.A larger off-grid power generation system can provide power for villages, water pumps, communication base stations and traffic control lights.
Space photovoltaic applications: Flexible solar Battery Manufacturer are ideal devices for space photovoltaic applications due to their lightweight and flexible properties combined with inherent radiation resistance and excellent high temperature performance [ 77 ].
The biggest advantage of amorphous silicon thin-film solar cell technology is its wide range of applications, and components with high cost performance will eventually have power generation costs that can compete with traditional power.The reduction of component cost will largely depend on the speed of energy production, and becoming a more mature technology needs to focus on solving several research and development problems raised in section 5.2.5.
Further development of amorphous silicon thin film solar cell technology requires improving the performance of the cell.A - Si: H / MC - Si: H non-microcrystal laminated Battery Manufacturer have 2 / 3 of the power from A - Si: H top Battery Manufacturer, so the focus of research and development is to improve the light trapping effect by improving the quality of transparent conductive oxide TCO materials and optimizing the surface texture.At the same time, we will continue to study amorphous silicon A - Si: H materials. The recently developed nano-silicon film has a microstructure with crystalline silicon properties and can be embedded into amorphous networks.
An introduction to
Copper, indium, gallium and selenium thin film solar Battery Manufacturer can combine the advantages of thin film technology with the high conversion efficiency and high stability of crystalline silicon solar Battery Manufacturer.Many people believe that once copper indium gallium hits the thin-film solar cell to realize large-scale commercialization, it will occupy a considerable proportion of the photovoltaic market.
Copper indium gallium smashed thin film solar Battery Manufacturer are prepared from chalcopyrite crystal structure compounds.Typical chalcopyrite compounds are CUI NSE 2, CUI NSZ and CUG ASE 2 with band gaps of 1.0 eV, 1.5 eV and 1.7 eV, respectively.Various chalcopyrite compounds have higher light absorption and different lattice constants and band gaps.Chalcopyrite compounds of different compositions can be prepared into alloys to form the required compromise band gap.Physico-chemical speciation of selected metals in the treated effluent of a lead-acid battery manufacturer and in the receiving river
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