Power battery recycling has broad prospects
In recent years, the number of new energy vehicles in the market has been increasing. Since 2009, sales and production of new energy vehicles have maintained a high growth trend. According to the statistics of the China Association of Automobile Manufacturers, the sales volume of new energy vehicles in 2015 was 331,100 units, and in 2016 it increased to 507,000 units.
As the core of the new energy vehicle, the power battery is naturally rising. At present, China has become the main production base of global lithium-ion battery for vehicles. The price of battery system has dropped from 5 yuan/Wh in 2012 to 2.5 yuan/Wh at present, which has dropped by half. Among them, lithium iron phosphate industry is leading the way in maturity and scale, and ternary lithium manganate and lithium titanate batteries have also achieved large-scale applications.
At present, new energy vehicles on the market generally implement a five-year/80,000-kilometer warranty. It is calculated that the vehicles that are being promoted from 2009 to 2012 or the vehicles with longer mileage have to be replaced or repaired.
According to the prediction of China Automotive Technology and Research Center, by 2020, the cumulative scrap of power batteries for pure electric (including plug-in) passenger cars and hybrid passenger cars in China will reach 12-17 million tons. This means that the market space for recycling of used power batteries will also open, and the process of recycling and recycling of used batteries is becoming increasingly urgent.
Just in the past "two sessions", the chairman of the National People's Congress, Tianneng Group, Zhang Tianren also proposed that "improving key technologies such as dismantling, reorganizing, testing and life prediction of used lithium batteries, and improving technology maturity." And the safety of the production process, as well as the automation level and recycling efficiency, make the recycling and reuse of the power lithium battery economically feasible and safe; strengthen the standardization research on the structural design, process technology and integrated installation of the power lithium battery, and trace the system Linked to the announcement of new energy vehicle product announcements to ensure the battery life cycle information record, improve the convenience and accuracy of testing and evaluation.
In addition, Zhang Tianren believes that it is also necessary to formulate incentive rules for the recycling of power lithium batteries, and establish a reward and punishment mechanism. If penalties are imposed on enterprises that fail to fulfill their obligations in accordance with the recycling policy, subsidies or tax incentives for recycling and recycling enterprises in accordance with the number of batteries, capacity, etc., encourage business model innovation pilots and promotion applications.
In fact, this year At the beginning, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Ministry of Commerce, and the Ministry of Science and Technology issued “Guiding Opinions on Accelerating the Development of Renewable Resources Industry”, which emphasizes “developing pilots for the recycling of new energy vehicles' power batteries, establishing and perfecting the standard system for the utilization of waste power batteries, and promoting the utilization of waste power batteries.”
According to estimates, waste Power battery recycling, in addition to reducing environmental pollution, also has considerable economic benefits. Scientific recycling of lithium-ion batteries can save 51.3% of natural resources, including 45.3% of ore consumption and 57.2% of fossil energy consumption. In addition, lithium-ion batteries The valuable materials such as nickel, cobalt, etc. can be reused through recycling.
In the industry, the release of the draft for comments, the power lithium battery recycling and ladder utilization industry will become a new opportunity in the industry. According to estimates by authoritative organizations, The market will start to erupt in 2018, and it will reach 5 billion yuan in that year. By 2020 and 2023, the market will further increase to 13.6 billion yuan and 31.1 billion yuan.
The industry expects to recover from used lithium batteries. Metals such as cobalt, nickel, manganese, lithium, iron and aluminum will create a recycling market of more than 5.3 billion By 2020, it will exceed 10 billion yuan. In 2023, the market for used lithium battery will reach 25 billion yuan.
The recycling of power lithium battery can be divided into two cycles: first, the use of ladders, mainly for battery capacity reduction. The battery can not make the electric vehicle run normally, but the battery itself is not scrapped, and can still be used in other ways, for example, for power storage; the second is dismantling and recycling, mainly for the battery capacity loss, so that the battery can not continue to use, Only the battery is recycled, and the renewable resources with valuable value are recovered.
Japanese companies have already had experience in pioneering, and many Japanese companies including 4R Energy, SHARP, and NEC, which are joint ventures between Nissan and Sumitomo. The R\u0026D and application of such power storage systems are being carried out, some mainly for power companies, and some mainly for families.
From the perspective of relevant policies, as early as December 30, 2014, the Ministry of Finance and other four ministries Jointly issued the "Notice on the Financial Support Policy for the Promotion and Application of New Energy Vehicles in 2016-2020 (Consultation Draft)" Responsibility of the main car manufacturers as a battery recycling, battery recycling responsible.
On December 1, 2016, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology organized the preparation of the Interim Measures for the Management of Recycling and Utilization of New Energy Vehicles' Power Battery (Draft for Comment). It explicitly encourages automobile production enterprises, battery production enterprises, recycling and dismantling enterprises and comprehensive utilization enterprises to jointly build and share the recycling network of used power batteries through various forms.
Under the multiple driving forces of policies, interests and responsibilities, more and more related companies have begun to deploy power battery recycling. In addition to Shenzhen GEM, Yan Feng Lithium and other professional companies, including Power Ma, China National Aviation Lithium, CATL and other power battery companies have also begun to try.
It is used for energy storage power stations and mobile power refueling vehicles. It is not possible to use batteries to regenerate decomposition materials to avoid environmental pollution. At present, it has been recycled and used to treat decommissioned power batteries above 200MWh.
With the gradual standardization and standardization of the power battery industry, the power battery with uniform specifications and material structure will have strong recycling and utilization value.