Three-Dimensional Nanotechnology-Based Solar Cells
The principal objective of a three-dimensional (3-D) solar cell is to trap the incoming photons until they are absorbed and effectively converted into electricity. This
design concept differs from the traditional planar solar cell approach, where photons have only one chance to interact with the conventional one-dimensional (1-D) solar cells. In the case of a 1-D solar cell, some photons are absorbed, but most of them are reflected by the flat surface and thus wasted, leading to very low theoretical conversion efficiencies, less than 15 percent for silicon cells.