Now the majority of electric bikes use lead-acid batteries because of their low cost and high cost-performance. This unique of battery is, when they are used for a period of time and battery voltage drops, it can make the voltage recovers by reverse current . This battery is called "lead-acid battery" because they can be charged and used repeatedly
Electric bikes often use the following four kinds of batteries, the maintenance-free valve regulated lead-acid batteries, gel lead-acid batteries, nickel metal hydride batteries and lithium ion batteries.
The commercialized electric bicycles mostly use sealed lead-acid batteries, they are maintenance-free and don’t need to add water while using.
It is an improvement on the base of common lead-acid batteries. It uses a gel electrolyte, and there is no free liquid inside. In the same volume, it has bigger electrolyte capacity, bigger heat capacity, and higher heat dissipation ability.
Nickel-metal hydride batteries
Nickel-metal hydride batteries were emerged rookie in the nineties batteries family, and they developed rapidly. The reaction of Ni-MH battery electrode is as follows:
Postive pole: Ni (OH) 2 + OH- = NiOOH + H2O + e-
Negative pole: M + H2O + e = MHab + OH-Ni (OH) 2 + M = NiOOH + MHab
Just like nickel-cadmium batteries, Ni-MH batteries also belong to alkaline battery. Their main advantages are: high energy ratio, high specific power, can be smoothly discharged at high currents, good discharge performance in low temperature, long cycle life, safe, reliable, maintenance free, no memory effect, no environmental pollution, renewable, in line with the sustainable development concept. However, Ni-MH batteries are very expensive.
Lithium Ion Battery
Lithium-ion batteries were pushed tho the market as a new type of high-energy batteries by Japan Sony Corporation in 1990. It is the highest specific energy among all the batteries at this moment, and has been widely used in portable information products.
Lithium-ion batteries have the following advantages: large specific energy, high specific power, low self-discharge, no memory effect, good cycle characteristics, quick discharge, high efficiency, wide operating temperature range, no environmental pollution and etc.
2) fault inspection and handing
First inspect the apperance to find the leakage section. If there is no abnormal, then you should do air-tight test. Finally during the process of charging, observe whether some flown electrolyte. If yes, you should clean it up.
Deformation of the battery
2) fault inspection and handling
If a set of batteries (3 pieces) distort at the same time, then you need to check the voltage. If there is one or two deformed, then there are the following possibilities
the battery capacity is inconsistent and the battery is over charged when charging.
(2) the plate of some batteries sulfation, the inner resistance increases, and the battery deforms when charging.
(3) some batteries are reverse-connection
• under the premise of no leakage, add more liquid to prolong or prevent "thermal runaway" generation.
• Avoid an internal short circuit or micro-short circuit, or with a tendency to micro-short circuit.
• avoid over-discharge while using, and assure put in full electricity.
• inspect the battery charger strictly and prevent any overcharge phenomenon.
• When charging in high temperature, you should ensure the battery has very good heat dissipation. Cooling measures should be taken or shorten, otherwise you should stop charging.
Voltage drop fast
Starting voltage drop quickly while a new battery start
2) Check processing
Check whether the actual voltage matches the battery meter display.
When battery voltage and meter display does not match, you should require manufacturers to adjust.
Check whether the current electric cars starting and running current is too large, if yes, you should should adjust
Check whether the battery capacity is too low, if yes, you should immediately.
2) Check processing
The reasons for battery sulfation are as follows:
(1) stored for too long time, self-discharge rate is high
(2) not be timely charged or discharged.
(3) don’t charge for a long time.
(4) over discharge.
(5) the electrolyte has been dry or the concentration is too high.
When the battery sulfation, you should repaire according to their severity degree.
If slight Sulfation, you should charge and make it return to normal.
If serious Sulfation, you should charge or discharge by “water cure”, then it could return to normal.
After production, to some extent, the life and performance of electric bikes battery depend on the consumer’s use and maintenance.
Matching of charger and battery
Electric vehicles batteries are often damaged by charging but not using, from this we could see the importance of the matching between charger and battery. Generally, there are two situations: First, the charger can not match the parameters provided by the battery manufacturer. Second, the charger components are of very poor quality. At the beginning of using, they are fairly matched, but after using for many times they can not match any more. It is recommended that consumers should buy the chargers which could match the battery from electric vehicle manufacturers, but not buy the poor quality charger in consideration of the cost.
Charging often and in time
Consumer often have a misunderstanding, they think that the battery life will reduced after charging, so every time they don’t charge the battery until the battery power has been under to the controller's protection voltage(31.5V). In this condition, the battery life will be shorten. So we remind all the consumers, if possible, the battery should timely charge.
Prohibited continuing riding when the indicator shows under-voltage
While the indicator displays under-voltage, some customers often ride for a while and then rest for a while. In this condition, the battery maybe seriously damaged, The battery will be short circuited, and it may affect battery life.
Recently, using RR - P3HT as electron donor, the performance of the prepared bulk heterojunction solar cell has been improved even more [ 63 ( 4 ) ].The photoelectric conversion efficiency FPCE of these devices is close to 75 % at the maximum absorption value, which indicates that in 100 - 200 nm thin devices, the electrodes can collect almost 100 % of photogenerated carriers.Carrier mobility of RR - P3HT is often studied in FET structures, but there is no detailed time-of-flight TOF study on the dependence of mobility on temperature and electric field strength.This is because when oxygen doping 1165,66 ] or moisture doping 1: 67 ] occurs when exposed to air, pat ( poly ) has a high dark conductivity and the shielding of electric field strength generally limits tof application.
We used TOF technology to study the dependence of mobility of RR - P3HT samples with low conductivity on temperature and electric field strength.The purification process described in document [ 68 ] realizes low conductivity of the sample.In addition, the device is prepared, stored and measured in a dry inert gas atmosphere.At 293 K and 180 K, the photoinduced current transients of RR - P3HT were recorded at the applied voltages of 100 V, 200 V, 260 V and 380 V, respectively.The sample is a 3.6 PTM thick film sandwiched between indium tin oxide ITO and the aluminum electrode in the form of a " sandwich". The irradiation light source is a 3 ns laser pulse with an excitation wavelength of 532 nm and is irradiated from the aluminum electrode side.At any temperature, when the voltage increases, the carrier transition time indicated by the arrow decreases.Moreover, the transient photogenerated current is not discrete and has a certain plateau and a short transition time at room temperature.At lower temperatures ( < 180 k ).The plateau region gradually disappears and the tail widens unevenly after the transition time.Discrete transition means that the relaxation of photo-generated carriers from random energy to quasi-equilibrium state is incomplete before reaching the collecting contact electrode, in other words, the range of non-uniform expansion of carrier package space is close to the thickness of the device.
The negative dependence of mobility on electric field strength can be understood as the superposition of more ordered energy and more disordered position.At low temperatures, the deviation from the linear dependence prediction can be attributed to the non-discrete to discrete transition ( n1 > * d ), after all equation ( 10.15 ) is considered to be only applicable to charge transport under quasi-equilibrium conditions.Since the delay time Tm / T0 = Lo Expect. Q7 ( A / KRT ) J that reaches the quasi-equilibrium level in the transport process increases faster than the transition time L with decreasing temperature, it can be presumed that Nd - * EP has occurred.The occurrence of nd - d can also be judged according to the shape change of the photogenerated current transient in the actual .18 ..
Ni > + d is inherent in tof technology, in which laser pulses are fully absorbed to generate photon - generated carriers with random energy.On the other hand, there is no nd - + d in the linearly increasing voltage charge extraction celiv technology. carriers are in thermodynamic equilibrium before extraction due to different modes of carrier generation in principle.Reversible oxygen doping and water vapor doping were observed in RR - P3HT, giving the opportunity to determine the dependence of mobility on temperature and electric field strength using CELIV technology on the same RR - P3HT sample that has been exposed to air [ 75 ].
Actual. 21 is a photo-generated current transient measured by CELIV. The sample is 1.3 thick RR _ P3HT, sandwiched between ITO and aluminum electrodes, with different reverse bias pulses and maximum voltage.: / 2V, 4V, 6V, 8V and 10V respectively, and the temperatures are 293 K and 130 K respectively.As the maximum voltage of the reverse bias pulse increases, the time to reach the maximum value of the extraction current moves to a shorter time and is strongly dependent on temperature.The electric field strength changes continuously during the extraction process, and the average value F = ( AXCEL IV technology and TOF technology determine the dependence of mobility on temperature and electric field strength.These two different technologies in principle can give consistent results.In particular, at temperatures higher than about 250 K, the negative dependence of mobility on electric field strength shows that the negative dependence is not a TOF experimental artifact caused by dark conductivity or carrier diffusion effects.The diffusion effect of moving carriers is thought to cause negative electric field intensity dependence of TOF experiment under the condition of weak electric field intensity [ 7S ], but such carrier diffusion effect does not exist in CELIV technology because carriers are in equilibrium distribution before being extracted.Therefore, the observed dependence of negative electric field intensity is believed to be inherent in P3HT research samples and can be interpreted as a result of disordered carrier movement positions.
Simulation results show that the fluctuation of electron coupling between points will lead to a faster route and the " dead end" of carriers will cause random movement.Under the condition of high electric field strength, the detour route around a difficult point is gradually restricted, causing carriers to make difficult jumps, thus reducing mobility.
According to TOF and CELIV measurements of samples with different thicknesses, log of mobility is made.Z ( f - 0 ) curve with respect to reciprocal 1 / T2 of the square of temperature.The CELIV mobility follows the prediction of Equation ( 10.15 ) over the entire measured temperature range.On the other hand, tof technology tends to have higher values at lower temperatures due to the appearance of the aforementioned Ni > * d at about 180 k.The mobility values measured by the two techniques coincide with each other in the high temperature range, indicating that the mode of carrier generation will not change the carrier transport characteristics at least in the smaller carrier concentration range [ 75 ].
Carrier transport and recombination in bulk heterojunction solar EV BATTERY 10.4.3.1 linearly increasing voltage and light induced charge extraction
The carrier mobility of bulk heterojunction solar EV BATTERY has been studied using time-of-flight TOF technology [ 77 ] and calculated using the transfer characteristics of field effect transistor FET [ 78 ].These experiments show that the electron mobility of PCBM phase and the hole mobility of co-polymer phase in photovoltaic mixing are relatively balanced, which is contrary to intuition and contrary to the experiments carried out in pure materials.The measurement of space charge limiting current SCLC shows that the mobility of injected holes in pure MDMO - PPV films is several orders of magnitude lower than that of injected electrons in PCBM films [ 79 ].Recent TOF studies on MDMO - PPV: PCBM devices mixed at a ratio of 1: 2 have concluded that mobility is unbalanced and electron mobility is at least two orders of magnitude higher than hole mobility [ 8 ].This apparent contradiction with the above studies shows that it is problematic to directly determine mobility using existing experimental methods.
TOF technology is limited to relatively thick samples with a thickness of about 1 mm, which is at least 310 times higher than the optimal thickness required for bulk heterojunction solar EV BATTERY.Both mobility and solar cell performance parameters show a strong dependence on morphology.The change of morphology depends on the preparation conditions of the film, such as solution concentration, drying time, etc.In addition, carrier concentration in TOF technology is limited to 10 % of capacitance charge, which limits carrier concentration in typical device configurations to 1014 cm - 3.This carrier concentration is 23 orders of magnitude lower than that of the solar cell under AM 1.5 illumination.
The mobility value measured by FET seems to be better matched with the numerical simulation of volt-ampere characteristic curve of bulk heterojunction solar cell [ 81 ].In addition, in FET technology, it is necessary to monitor the movement of electric field-induced carriers near the insulator surface, which will result in severe restrictions.First, the mobility obtained by FET technology may also strongly depend on the morphology of the film.The morphology of the phase separation network near the insulator may be completely different from that in vivo.In addition, the motion direction of the charge in the FET is perpendicular to the motion direction in the sandwich photodiode, while the existence of mobility anisotropy is observed in [ 82 ].
The following optical techniques have been used to study the recombination mechanism of photogenerated carriers in the mixture of electron donor and electron acceptor materials:
Photoinduced electron spin resonance LES RM;
light-induced absorption of PIAC 83 ];
Light - induced Reflection Absorption ( PhotoinducReflection / Absorption, Rira ) [ 84 ];Transient absorption TA [ 2A.
When these optical techniques are used, the carrier-induced film absorption change data need to be fitted to AT factory' monitoring methods are modulation technique PIA and subsequent time resolution experiment TA.The recorded signals are often very discrete, especially at low temperatures, low frequencies and long time scales.Although these long-life photoluminescence has great practical significance, these optical techniques cannot directly distinguish between moving carriers and stationary carriers trapped by deep traps.For example, the TA experiment of MDMO - PPV: PCBM mixture gives a power law attenuation ( PowerLawDecrayyW ) of an AT / T signal with an index A = 0.4 and a time scale of PT SMS.Power law attenuation shows that the given lifetime distribution is wide because the obtained signal is very discrete.Moreover, these optical technologies will require the thin film to have no electrodes, so it is not easy to study the running devices.
In general, the composite process information of bulk heterojunction solar EV BATTERY in operation is obtained from the dependence of short-circuit current on human light intensity [ 31 ].The scaling factor close to 1 indicates that the short-circuit current is not limited by the secondary recombination process of bimolecular ( non - twin pair ) recombination.In the latter case, the index is considered close to 0.5.Unfortunately, such experiments provide little information about any level of compounding process.The first-order recombination process varies linearly with the intensity of human light, such as single molecule recombination involving traps or recombination due to accumulation of space charges.
The carrier mobility / x and lifetime r of a bulk heterojunction solar cell in operation can be measured simultaneously using photo - celiv technology of linearly increasing voltage photo - induced charge extraction.In this superior technique, short laser pulses generate photogenerated carriers, which are then extracted under an intrinsic electric field or carrier recombination occurs.The forward bias voltage can be applied to compensate for the intrinsic electric field, minimize the photogenerated current and influence recombination to form a flat band condition, and the remaining carriers can be extracted by linearly increasing voltage pulses after a certain delay time w.
Actual. 24 illustrates three different stages of Photo - CELIV technology.In the first stage, photogenerated carriers are generated by photo-induced charge transfer.In the second stage, the system is in equilibrium and carriers recombine under the condition of zero electric field strength.By applying forward bias offset voltage UI to compensate the built-in electric field, the zero electric field strength condition can be realized.At the same time, carriers relax towards the tail state of distribution.In the third stage, the remaining carriers are extracted by the reverse bias voltage pulse.After the extraction current reaches the maximum value, the mobility is calculated.The complex dynamics can be studied by calculating the functional relationship between the extracted charge concentration and the delay time.
Actual. 25 shows the effect of forward bias offset voltage UOFFSET on Photo - CELIV curve.The bulk heterojunction solar cell used in this study is a typical sandwich-type device structure: ITO / pedot - PSS / MDMO - PPV: PCB m1: 4 / a1 omd mo - PPV synthesized using the actual. 12 thionyl precursor method.Using calibrated solar simulator measurements, devices with an active layer thickness of 265 nm have a conversion efficiency of 1.8 %.At the excitation wavelength of 532 nm, the absorption coefficient of the photosensitive layer is 4x104 cn t1, corresponding to an optical density qd of about 1, so carriers are generated in vivo.The delay time between the light pulse and the linearly increasing voltage ramp a = 4v / 10ms & 5 ms.
Under the condition of short circuit, the applied voltage is 0V. Under the influence of the built-in electric field of the device, most photogenerated carriers leave the device between reverse bias voltage pulses.When the applied voltage of 0.9V is applied, the photoinduced current reaches the minimum value, resulting in a flat band condition, and the extraction current increases due to the reverse bias voltage pulse.Finally, when udffscl > 0.9v, the photogenerated current becomes negative, which indicates that the movement of carriers is driven by the electric field.In addition, there is an obvious injection current, which shows a non-zero offset current, and the injected carriers and photogenerated carriers are extracted together by CELIV pulse.In the experiment ( 7.Set to be close to the built-in electric field of the device, but slightly smaller than the built-in electric field to prevent dark injection, because dark injection will make the photo - celiv curve more complicated.It is worth mentioning that if there is no PEDOT - PSS hole injection layer, the built-in electric field can be more accurately compensated in the device.However, it is not yet possible to determine whether PEDOT - PSS has an effect on mobility and whether mobility has an effect on time and carrier concentration dependence.
Actual. 26 gives photo - celiv curves with different delay times.The offset voltage u during these measurements.[ 6 ] is 0.75 v.The maximum value of the extraction current decreases with the increase of the delay time h, indicating the influence of carrier recombination, while the maximum time corresponding to the maximum value of the extraction current moves slightly to a longer time [ 86 ].The extraction current corresponding to any delay time is reduced to the step value of capacitance current, which indicates that most photocarriers are extracted in Photo - CELIV experiment.Actual. 26 is a photo - celiv transient recorded at different human light intensities, with the delay time fixed at 5 ms.The maximum value of the extraction current remains unchanged before the threshold value of 1 / JEM - 2 / pulse of human light intensity.Different from the measurement results depending on the delay time, the maximum time of different human light intensity is kept constant.Finally, the actual. 26 recorded a series of photo - celiv curves obtained when voltage pulses of different maximum voltages were applied. the delay time was fixed at 15 ms and the human light intensity was also fixed.When the maximum voltage of the voltage pulse increases, the maximum time is shorter, indicating that the average carrier speed depends on the voltage or the rental field.
Actual. 27 gives the mobility value. / / Dependence on delay time ZDD.Before 10, the mobility decreased significantly with the increase of delay time k, while the longer delay time h hardly decreased the mobility.2。The mobility can also be expressed as a function of carrier concentration as measured by photo - celiv depending on the intensity of human light.Obviously, a relatively large mobility increase does not correspond to a weak mobility dependence on carrier concentration in the short delay time range of .27.Actual. 27 shows the dependence of mobility on electric field strength for 5p and 15 ms delay times.When the delay time is longer, the dependence of mobility on electric field strength is typically positive, just like that of common amorphous semiconductor materials.However, when the delay time is short, mobility shows an abnormal negative dependence on electric field strength.It is thought that mobility in disordered semiconductors will strongly depend on carrier concentration, especially trap filling effect. However, the above experimental results confirm that mobility does not have a strong dependence on carrier concentration.So, our current judgment is that the time scale of the experiment is too short, and it will take more time for the energy relaxation of carriers to be achieved.
The mobility " and the lifetime r can be obtained simultaneously by using photo - celiv technology, and the results given are very different from the previous studies on transient absorption ta.The different recombination rule compared with TA measurement T22' 85 is calculated from Photo - CELIV depending on the delay time, which may be due to TA experiment detecting various carrier concentration attenuations, including stationary carriers.On the other hand, only carriers with reasonable mobility can be extracted by Photo - CELIV experiment.It can be estimated from the tail end of the extracted current curve that the number of unextracted deep trap carriers reaches a minimum at room temperature.Now an important question arises: can these long-life carriers be extracted under the operating conditions of bulk heterojunction solar EV BATTERY?In other words, whether it is determined by Photo - CELIV technology;Zr product can reasonably describe the measured volt-ampere characteristic curve of bulk heterojunction solar EV BATTERY?
Influence of active layer thickness
If the thickness of the active layer is increased, the light absorption will be increased, thus the short-circuit current of the bulk heterojunction solar cell will be increased.On the other hand, according to Equations ( 10.22 ) and ( 10.23 ), recombination will cause electrical loss when the thickness of the active layer exceeds the drift length of carriers by 1.
Based on these discussions, the short-circuit current of bulk heterojunction solar EV BATTERY depends on the thickness, and the appropriate thickness should be close to the drift length of carriers and the mobility lifetime product.Zr can be given by photo - Celiv technique of linearly increasing voltage photo - induced charge extraction.
As mentioned earlier, the performance of bulk heterojunction solar EV BATTERY depends on the morphology, so our comparative study needs a premise that changing the thickness of the active layer will not change the morphology of the active layer.We used the same solution to prepare the active layer of the bulk heterojunction solar cell, the MDMO - PPV: PCB MWT ratio was 1: 4, and 0.5 mg chloroform was used per ml solution. The thickness of the active layer varied from 1000 rpm to 6000 rpm.We believe that this preparation method is more suitable for experiments requiring setting the film thickness than changing the total concentration or changing the solvent type.When the rotation speed is 6000 rpm, the active layer thickness is about 125 nm, and the active layer thickness increases nonlinearly as the rotation speed slows down.When the rotation speed is 1000 rpm, the thickness of the active layer is about 280 nm.The lower rotation speed will make some parts of the film uneven, so 8 devices were prepared for each active layer thickness measurement, and the results were averaged.Actual. 29 shows the dependence of average conversion efficiency of bulk heterojunction solar EV BATTERY on film thickness.When the thickness of the active layer is 125 nm, the conversion efficiency is 2.5 %.When the thickness of the active layer is increased to 280 nm, the conversion efficiency drops to about 1.7 %.
Then, the average values of the performance parameters of each group of heterojunction solar EV BATTERY are compared. The compared parameters are short-circuit current density, injection current density biased in + 2V forward direction, open-circuit voltage and filling factor.As the thickness of the active layer increases, the average short-circuit current density increases slightly, reaching a maximum of about 6 mA CNT 2 at a thickness of 225 nm and decreasing slightly at a thickness of 280 nm.The measured open circuit voltage is constant for each active layer thickness, about 800 mV.On the other hand, when the thickness of the active layer increases, the filling factor decreases from 0.6 to 0.4, which is in good agreement with the decrease of the injection current density of + 2V.According to these data, the decrease in filling factor at 280 nm is much larger than the decrease in short-circuit current density at this thickness, so the obvious decrease in average conversion efficiency at 280 nm is mainly due to the decrease in filling factor.
Actual. 31 gives volt-ampere characteristic curves of bulk heterojunction solar EV BATTERY with different active layer thicknesses under illumination.The volt-ampere characteristic curve can be analyzed with the modified form of the actual single diode model shown in. 17. Schilinsky et al. used this method to explain the volt-ampere characteristic curve based on P3HT: PCBM hybrid heterojunction solar cell depending on incident light intensity [ 81 ].The model considers that the collection of photogenerated carriers by the electrode will decrease with the application of an applied voltage.When the applied voltage 7 increases to close to the flat band condition, the electric field strength in the device will also decrease.Accordingly, it is known from equation ( 10.24 ) that only carriers generated within a drift length LD of $ small will contribute to the short-circuit photogenerated current.In other words, the short-circuit current density / k in equation ( 10.16 ) is no longer constant and now depends on the applied voltage VMI.
The equation ( 10.24 ) model can give some important conclusions.When KXT SKK, the sign of the photogenerated current will change' and increase and when it approaches, the photogenerated current will decrease.In addition, the high filling factor of 125 nm thick devices shows that most long-life carriers can be collected by the external electrodes of bulk heterojunction solar EV BATTERY with an active layer thickness of not more than 180 nm as long as it is small according to this result.In other words, the bimolecular recombination of carriers does not limit the short-circuit current of bulk heterojunction solar EV BATTERY.Long life?MS ) carrier drift length calculation results are consistent with those observed in the actual. 30 experiment, which indicates that most long-life carriers can be collected by the operating bulk heterojunction solar cell.These conclusions are also supported by the observed dependence of short-circuit photogenerated current on human light intensity [ 31 \ It can be observed that the scale factor is close to 1, indicating that short-circuit current is not limited by the secondary recombination process such as bimolecular recombination.
We reviewed the operating mechanism and the latest technology of bulk heterojunction solar EV BATTERY, and focused on the new material formulation and advanced measurement technology.Atomic force microscope AFM, scanning electron microscope SEM, transmission electron microscope TEM and other microscope tools can be used to study the correlation between phase separation interpenetrating network nanotopography and bulk heterojunction solar cell conversion efficiency.Various mobility techniques, such as field effect transistor FET, space charge limiting current SCLC, time of flight TOF and linearly increasing voltage charge extraction CELIV, are used to determine the carrier mobility of electron and hole transport phase dual continuous interpenetrating networks.However, the novel photo - celiv technique of linearly increasing voltage and light-induced charge extraction has been proved to be capable of simultaneously determining the mobility " and lifetime r of bulk heterojunction solar EV BATTERY.The obtained PR value is consistent with the observed performance of bulk heterojunction solar EV BATTERY with different active layer thicknesses.The main limitation of bulk heterojunction solar EV BATTERY is their limited solar spectrum low energy absorption, while the latest research and development directions of bulk heterojunction solar EV BATTERY are low band gap polymers and light absorbing fullerene materials.
" Affordable Internet access" of thin film solar EV BATTERY means that large-scale production can ultimately make the power generation cost of thin film solar EV BATTERY lower than that of thermal power.In order to discuss the issue of affordable Internet access, we need to first distinguish between what needs to be covered in this chapter and what cannot be covered in this chapter.We have no way to systematically analyze the specific company or specific K technology that produces thin film solar EV BATTERY.We will not give the latest actual market price of thin film solar EV BATTERY, because these data depend on specific enterprise capacity and product performance.The industrialization of thin-film solar EV BATTERY is developing very fast, and many important commercial details are kept under F - secrecy.
What this chapter can do is to summarize the selection of technical route, the arrangement of process flow and the design of device structure, to analyze and sort out these aspects in the form of Chinese characters, and to give a rough forecast of the development of thin film solar cell technology.We will use many data tables to sum up the specific production costs of thin film solar EV BATTERY to a certain extent.Although a lot of data are summarized here in the hope of summarizing the actual situation as true as possible, the estimation of some process steps and material parts may not be accurate, which may affect the accuracy of the final cost analysis results.I hope this chapter can explain clearly the issue of promoting affordable Internet access by thin film solar EV BATTERY in the most objective way.We will try our best to make the discussion objective, but we can't give up such work because we can't grasp Zhu's development trend absolutely and objectively.Since the photovoltaic industry will have a huge impact on human life after reaching the parity level, and will help solve the global climate warming and energy crisis, even if the current discussion of parity access cannot be completely accurate, it is still worth continuing the N - theory.Solar energy is the main energy source accepted by the earth, and solar power without CO2 emissions can also effectively alleviate the problem of global warming.In this chapter, the potential of thin-film solar EV BATTERY and the difficulties to be overcome are described in detail as far as possible.
Actually, the summary of cost estimation or cost projection in 1911.22 is consistent in methodology, and the conclusion is that several kinds of thin film solar cell technologies can make the system price drop?1.2 / WP, the price is equivalent to C57 / KW. H electricity, and the sunshine data required for conversion comes from Kansas City, the average sunshine level in the United States.The cost of such photovoltaic power generation can be said to have reached the level of affordable access to the Internet, and this cheap power of $ provides intermittent power during the day through a system connected to the power grid, and can also electrolyze water to generate H2 rechargeable fuel EV BATTERY.If a thin-film solar cell is used to realize distributable power, it is also necessary to analyze the part of the long-distance transmission and storage device in the power generation cost.
The research in this chapter will follow the principle of conservative estimation.Several clear paths to further reduce the manufacturing cost of thin film solar EV BATTERY ( e.g., cheaper packaging materials ) can greatly reduce the cost of photovoltaic power generation.
In addition to the cost forecast, we will also discuss other aspects of affordable Internet access, including shortage of raw materials, land use and EPBT of energy payback period.The shortage of in and te may be encountered for copper indium gallium hit thin-film solar EV BATTERY and cadmium telluride thin-film solar EV BATTERY, respectively, while for other thin-film solar EV BATTERY, the supply of raw materials only needs to meet the demand for stable growth.Because there are many kinds of thin-film solar EV BATTERY, shortage of raw materials does not seem to be a key problem.As for land use, this is a major advantage of photovoltaic power generation.Solar cell modules can be used on roofs or other building structures and are the most effective way to convert solar energy into useful energy forms.The universally available solar light has sufficient sources, and only 0.125 % of the earth's land area needs to be used and solar EV BATTERY with a conversion efficiency of 20 % need to be installed, which will be enough to supply the electricity demand of all mankind even in 2050.The energy recovery period EPBT will not become a problem at present, but will drop to about 12 years. Further technological development will continue to reduce the number of problems that the photovoltaic industry will inevitably encounter in the process of developing EPB TO into one of the most important industrial fields in the world.The main problems are foreseeable.This chapter will focus on those issues that are clearly visible and try to clarify various misunderstandings about the photovoltaic industry.With the rapid growth of photovoltaic market in recent years, we believe that these potential problems and misunderstandings will not hinder the contribution of the commercialization of thin film solar EV BATTERY to photovoltaic power generation.
From Taiwa Challenge to Affordable Internet Access
At present, the world consumes about 10 terawatts ( TW ) of energy each year, while the United States alone consumes about 3GW each year.By 2050, the world's energy consumption will reach about 30TW.Therefore, by the middle of the 21st century, the world will need about 20TW of non-carbon dioxide energy to stabilize the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere.For a detailed discussion on non-carbon dioxide energy to cope with climate change, please refer to document [ 1 ].Martinhofert ( 1 ) of new york University, Ricksmalley ( 2 ) of Rice University and Nate Lewis ( 3 ) of California Institute of Technology all put forward the proposition of " Taiwa Challenge" and made it a key issue to discuss whether thin film solar EV BATTERY can cope with such Taiwa Challenge.
It is inevitable that some difficulties will be encountered in the realization of photovoltaic applications at the terawatt level:
The biggest difficulty: the cost of photovoltaic power generation, which will be the focus of research;Medium difficulties: shortage of raw materials, land use and energy recovery period EPBT, which will also be discussed later.The last difficulty: intermittent power is converted into distributable power or the fuel cell is charged. We will briefly discuss this point. Further research can be found in other documents.
However, why can photovoltaic power generation meet the Taiwa challenge?Why not other forms of non - CO2 energy?This important issue is uncertain to many political leaders and perplexed by ordinary people.
In his recent speech and literature, Professor Lewis of California Institute of Technology emphasized that solar energy is the most abundant form of energy among all renewable energy sources and is best suited to meet the terawatt challenge of global energy demand.However, other renewable energy sources such as wind energy, biomass energy, geothermal energy and water conservancy energy do not have enough global resources to meet the Taiwa challenge.For example, the total amount of water conservancy energy in the world is 0.5TW, while the total amount of wind energy in the world is 3TW.Although the cost of both renewable energy sources is lower than that of solar energy, it is impossible for water conservancy to meet the energy demand of 1tw, and wind energy is indeed difficult.Solar energy with a total global illumination of about 125000 TW has both opportunities and responsibilities.
In short, any energy technology capable of generating at least 1tw of energy per year should be called a technology capable of meeting the terawatt challenge and need to contribute to reducing climate change.Solar energy can be said to be the most suitable form of new energy to meet the Taiwa challenge.If we do further discussion, we need to predict how many thin-film solar EV BATTERY people will be able to supply by the middle of the 21st century.
In addition to various renewable energy sources, another unique technical solution to reduce climate change is carbon dioxide sequestration, which can also stabilize the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere.Carbon dioxide sequestration is the capture of CO2 by coal combustion, then transported to the storage area through pipelines and compressed to a special underground storage space located in the aquifer by an air pump. Such storage space can store CO2 for thousands of years without leakage.Although carbon dioxide sequestration technology is not yet mature, it will probably be an important technical direction to deal with climate change in the 21st century.In the field of carbon dioxide sequestration, people are doing a lot of research and development.
If carbon dioxide sequestration cannot be applied on a large scale, it can be determined that the world will need at least 10TW of non-carbon dioxide energy and even 20TW to stabilize the CO2 content in the atmosphere by the middle of the 21st century.If there is no proliferation reactor, even nuclear energy will not be able to meet such a terawatt challenge because the existing design will cause a shortage of uranium fuel.However, the excessive use of breeder reactors will lead to problems such as plutonium fuel proliferation, waste disposal and nuclear accidents, among which the spread of fuel in the pot will also easily bring about opportunities for terrorism.Therefore, nuclear energy may not be able to meet the Taiwa challenge.
Before the middle of the 21st century, there is a reasonable strategic vision to stabilize the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, but there are also some potential problems:
Solar energy and other renewable energy sources are expected to generate 10TW, but the cost of renewable energy sources needs to be low enough.The fuel cell may reach 10TW as traffic power, but it also needs to reduce the cost of storing H2 in the vehicle, and all the fuel system infrastructure needs to be replaced with H2, and the gasoline engine of the vehicle needs to be replaced with fuel cell or turbine engine.Fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas supply 10TW for residents and industries. Extracting oil from coal is also an important strategic research direction, but this technical route will still generate considerable CO2.
Under this strategic vision, there will be a huge demand of 1020 TW solar EV BATTERY around the world by the middle of the 21st century due to abundant solar energy sources.The world's current energy demand is only 10TW per year, so the demand for 1020 TW solar EV BATTERY is a big number.
However, whether carbon dioxide sequestration will be implemented on a large scale and whether the application of solar energy will be limited is still a matter of doubt, so it is necessary for us to discuss carbon dioxide sequestration in more detail.
People seem to have great expectations for the application potential of carbon dioxide sequestration, because it will further develop the lowest-cost thermal power, solve the power demand with cheap and abundant coal so far, and at the same time stabilize the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere.Then, carbon dioxide sequestration and increased energy demand will increase the cost of thermal power by about 50 % to 150 %.This increase in cost will reduce the cost advantage of thermal power and relatively increase the competitive advantage of renewable energy in price._ _ Professor Bob Williams of Princeton University in the United States proposed the so-called carbon dioxide sequestration technology of biomass. Coal and biomass can be converted into liquid fuel ( called " fuel" while removing a large amount of C ( ) 2 from the air.This is more advantageous than ordinary carbon dioxide sequestration and can compete with traditional fossil fuels.Although carbon dioxide sequestration of biomass is a newly emerging technical direction, its research and development will replace the status of renewable energy and may even become the main form of energy to meet the global energy demand of 30TW in the middle of the 21st century.
On the other hand, Professor Williams of Princeton University and Professor Lewis of California Institute of Technology have also proposed an innovative technology, that is, using solar energy to produce hydrocarbon fuel to replace biomass needed for carbon dioxide sequestration.If this novel solar cell application technology succeeds, the demand for photovoltaic power generation will greatly increase … and carbon dioxide storage technology can be developed at the same time.The CO2 in the air can be combined with H2 decomposed by water to produce hydrocarbon fuel by in-situ electrochemical method imitating photosynthesis.This method is similar to the existing method of in-situ photovoltaic electrochemical decomposition of water, but the process is more complicated and requires long-term research and major breakthroughs in several aspects.
It may take more time to develop technologies such as carbon dioxide sequestration of biomass.According to a certain analysis?Biomass resources will be exhausted by the middle of this century, so the in-situ photovoltaic photosynthesis to produce hydrocarbon fuels may play a greater role at that time.
However, there are simpler and shorter photovoltaic methods that can remove CO2 from the atmosphere and generate hydrocarbons.Since the solar cell module can be used to generate electricity and the water can be decomposed by an in-situ electrolytic cell, it is possible to simply use photovoltaic power generation to generate hydrocarbon fuel.As with photosynthesis of leaves, C02 can be obtained from the air or the exhaust gas from the power plant, and H can be obtained from the water and then combined into hydrocarbons.Because it takes too much energy to collect CO2 from the atmosphere, large areas of leaves or solar EV BATTERY can be used to economically capture CO2 from the atmosphere, so physical and chemical methods need to be studied to effectively capture CO2.However, other aspects of this method have matured: decomposing water with electrolytic EV BATTERY and chemically synthesizing hydrocarbon fuels with C02 and H, such as reverse methanol fuel EV BATTERY and solar EV BATTERY generating direct current.The hydrocarbon fuel produced by photovoltaic technology does not compete with gasoline price, but with carbon dioxide sequestration of biomass.Whether photovoltaic technology is applied to carbon dioxide sequestration or hydrocarbon fuel production, the cost of photovoltaic power generation is still a key indicator.
Even in the case of large-scale development of carbon dioxide sequestration, several TW photovoltaic power generation is also of great value.If the carbon dioxide sequestration technology is mature after research and development, it may also take 10 years. In this 10 years, solar cell photovoltaic power generation may have reached the level of affordable access to the Internet, and the power generation cost is already lower than that of coal-fired power generation.The more likely scenario is that carbon dioxide sequestration will not be used on a large scale, so solar energy will undoubtedly be the most important non-carbon dioxide energy source.Whether carbon dioxide sequestration will develop on a large scale or not, we are convinced that photovoltaic power generation needs to meet the terawatt challenge.
Even if carbon dioxide sequestration will be developed on a large scale, the production of hydrocarbons ( not H2 ) by solar energy will also have a significant impact on transportation.Because both the production of liquid fuel by solar energy and the production of liquid fuel require decomposition of water, the increase in the cost of producing liquid fuel over the production of liquid fuel only lies in the process of treating CO2.However, such cost increase will be partially offset by the popularity of liquid fuel, which is easier to transport and store than H2 and can fully utilize the existing entire gasoline-based highway transportation infrastructure.Moreover, the further cost saving comes from the small degree of modification of existing cars, which shows the greatest advantage of solar energy in producing liquid fuel.As a matter of fact, many policy-making government officials are suspicious of the feasibility of using H2 fuel cell for transportation based on such factors.Whether producing hydrocarbons or H2, photovoltaic power generation will play an important role in transportation as a non-carbon dioxide energy source.
Another important issue related to photovoltaic generation of hydrocarbons or H2 is " storage".Photovoltaic power generation is intermittent, and necessary measures need to be taken to adjust the transfer mode of photovoltaic power generation to meet power demand, especially at night, cloudy weather and extreme weather conditions.There are two solutions: storage and long-distance transmission.Converting 142 or hydrocarbons back into electricity can achieve energy storage.The contradiction between power supply and demand in photovoltaic power generation can be optimized through long-distance transmission.Domestic and international power grids need to be comprehensively upgraded to support large-scale intermittent power supply of solar and wind energy [ 2 ].
In short, the most important factor in solar photovoltaic power generation is " cost".From a source point of view, solar energy can meet global demand, but the most critical issue is still " cost - effectiveness".Each market has different photovoltaic system costs, and the price competitiveness will change with time, especially compared with the ever-increasing oil price.This chapter will prove that thin-film solar EV BATTERY can reduce the cost of photovoltaic power generation to about rot / kw, h and realize the so-called " affordable access to the internet".There are even technological routes that can lower the cost of power generation, but investing in these technologies is more speculative and risky than thin film solar EV BATTERY.Westbank > / 5 / kWh is similar to the existing generation cost, and has enough competitiveness to meet the conventional demand for electricity and transportation fuel.
By the middle of the 21st century, solar photovoltaic power generation will reach 1020 TW.As Professor Lewis of California Institute of Technology said [ 3 ], the total amount of solar energy resources is enormous, and we need to find appropriate ways to make full use of this resource.Therefore, the current photovoltaic industry needs to think carefully about how to deal with the Taiwa challenge, especially the following aspects should be paid attention to:
realizing extremely low cost;
Properly manage explosive industrial growth, including overcoming raw material bottlenecks;Production, installation and use of photovoltaic systems on an unprecedented scale.
Although crystalline silicon solar EV BATTERY and concentrated photovoltaic ( CPV ) are also very cost-competitive solar technologies, the purpose of research and development of thin-film solar cell technology is to reduce costs, so this chapter will only discuss thin-film solar EV BATTERY.
Low cost ideal
From the beginning, the goal of developing thin film solar EV BATTERY is to reduce the cost of photovoltaic power generation, and achieving cost-effectiveness has always been the ultimate goal of research and development.Because thin-film solar EV BATTERY use low-cost raw materials ( glass, metal, plastic ) and a small amount of high-cost semiconductor materials.Even for extremely expensive semiconductor materials costing up to $ 1000 / kg, the cost of about 1 thick semiconductor is about 26g / m2 and the conversion efficiency of the thin film solar cell module is up to 10 %, so the cost of the semiconductor layer is only $ 0.020.06 / WP.The low-cost ideal of this kind of thin-film solar cell was proposed soon after the invention of the solar cell, but the most difficult problem is to develop semiconductor materials with good enough performance, and to raise the conversion efficiency of the module to a considerable level, raise the yield of the production process to a considerable proportion, and reduce the production cost of the module to a considerable amount.Thin film solar EV BATTERY also have inherent stability problems, which involve both the thin film itself and the component level.However, the low-cost ideal of thin-film solar EV BATTERY has vitality as a whole, has reached the mature stage of industrialization ( 1 ), has gradually expanded its market share, and may eventually realize real low-cost production.We will continue to explain why thin film solar EV BATTERY can meet the demand of large-scale market in the following article.
Cost Analysis of Components
Almost all types of thin film solar EV BATTERY have many common characteristics.Thin - film solar EV BATTERY are expected to use very thin semiconductors to convert sunlight into electricity with minimal material costs, while components can ensure excellent F outdoor quality. From this perspective, thin-film solar EV BATTERY directly address the problem of high material costs of crystalline silicon solar EV BATTERY.
However, thin film solar EV BATTERY and crystalline silicon solar EV BATTERY have many similar characteristics:
Both top and bottom protection is needed to protect against the damage of the external environment and can have an outdoor service life of about 30 years.Both have top contact, bottom contact and bus bar to connect external circuits and collect current.Both require connecting the batteries to balance the output current and voltage.There should be a certain installation plan, even if the installation parts are not included, there should also be a certain installation design.All should be sealed at the edge.
No matter which semiconductor material is used for a specific thin film, there are many similarities between thin film solar EV BATTERY and crystalline silicon solar EV BATTERY at the component level.These commonalities can be called component balance ( BOM ) and become an important part of component cost.
If thin-film solar EV BATTERY want to compete in the photovoltaic power generation market and compete with the price of traditional fossil fuels, they need to improve the conversion efficiency and reduce the cost at the same time.In order to realize the cost-effectiveness of thin-film solar EV BATTERY, it is necessary to try to reduce the cost of semiconductor materials, energy, capital and equipment maintenance, and to use the largest area of substrates and conveniently connected EV BATTERY as much as possible, thus maximizing the degree of automation.Capital cost is mainly the investment cost of purchasing equipment and will be reflected in the cost analysis in the form of depreciation.In order to realize these optimizations, the conversion efficiency, yield and stability should be taken into account.
This simple comparison with crystalline silicon solar cell modules will be helpful for a deeper comparison of various thin film solar cell types later.It should be noted that not all types of thin-film solar EV BATTERY are necessarily more cost-effective than crystalline silicon solar EV BATTERY in photovoltaic power generation systems.As a matter of fact, some types of thin film solar EV BATTERY have no advantages in terms of system cost. Only by giving full play to the potential of thin film solar EV BATTERY in process flow and product design can they achieve real commercial success.More importantly, the production cost of thin film solar EV BATTERY needs to be low enough to cope with the global demand for climate change and fossil fuel depletion.Fortunately, cadmium telluride thin film solar EV BATTERY and amorphous silicon thin film solar EV BATTERY have overcome many difficulties and are quite competitive in the market.
There are many similarities among various thin-film solar cell modules in balancing BOM of components such as laminated packaging and contact electrodes, or BOS in systems such as supports and connections, and conversion efficiency is often the key factor determining the cost-effectiveness of any type of thin-film solar cell [ 5 ].
Cost analysis method
We will estimate the composition cost of different types of thin film solar cell modules through a more rigorous method.In general, the component cost of thin film solar EV BATTERY can be divided into two parts:
Component balance BOM: the material cost required to constitute a component is the common cost composition of most thin film solar EV BATTERY;Non - BOM: The cost of different semiconductor layer materials is a unique cost component of each design.
Assuming an initial capacity level of 25 mwp / a, such capacity is a common level planned by existing manufacturers and start-up companies.Then, similar cost analysis methods will be applied to the larger scale production level in the future, and the factors of scale benefit and technological progress will be considered.
For various technical routes of thin film solar cell production, they can be distinguished in a certain way, as shown in actual .1.Cluster type refers to batch type with multiple reaction chambers, while glass rigid substrate and flexible substrate will involve system cost.
According to the actual standard of 1, the technical routes of major international thin film solar cell manufacturers can be roughly classified, as shown in actual 2.Among them, thin film X - Si refers to a silicon-based thin film solar cell with crystalline silicon as the active layer, including epitaxial crystalline silicon thin film solar cell, heterogeneous substrate crystalline silicon thin film solar cell and polysilicon thin film solar cell.We can't judge arbitrarily whether the technology routes compete with the development prospects of companies here, nor can we point out what kind of companies can meet the Taiwa challenge, because the maturity of each technology route still requires a lot of research and development, but many of these technologies have the potential to meet the Taiwa challenge through full development and realize affordable Internet access.
We will carry out cost analysis of various thin film solar cell technologies according to such classification, so as to obtain the impact of different technical routes on cost and conversion efficiency.The author will not use the real company's cost information, which is confidential.Even if we know these confidential information, we cannot disclose it publicly.In addition, in order to maintain a certain degree of flexibility, it also includes the current and future range of changes, rather than being limited to the actual production line and device design.It can be confirmed that such a method will not unduly affect the accuracy and reliability of the estimation.In fact, in all cases, the difference of different technical routes is smaller than the similarity, so the main factors such as conversion efficiency, substrate selection and component balance basically determine the comparison among the technical routes.In addition to these technical routes, we will also study some more novel thin film solar cell technologies, most of which are in the initial state.Compared with the actual. 2 technologies, the development of these more novel technologies will lag 52 years' to examine these technologies in order to confirm their development potential under the condition that all research problems can be overcome.The solar touch female position that can cope with terawatt is not carved in the actual secret technique' the mature technology of picking crystal silicon solar EV BATTERY now may also realize the challenge of accessing the internet at a low price and terawatt.
All kinds of information resources are used in cost estimation, and the most critical challenge is to use the right process steps and the right raw materials.If the information of the process steps or raw materials is inaccurate or missing, the final cost analysis result will deviate greatly.Papers, meeting minutes, NREL research progress and private exchanges are the sources of information on process steps.However, it is almost certain that the author still lacks information on individual unique processes, and it is almost impossible to openly discuss these unique process steps.Shunt processing and photolithography are the process steps that may be ignored, but they are not the major cost components and differ for different technologies.In order to obtain these missing information, it will be handled by " miscellaneous".
We can further confirm the recent cost analysis of thin film solar EV BATTERY.Manufacturers of amorphous silicon thin-film solar EV BATTERY and cadmium telluride thin-film solar EV BATTERY both achieved an annual capacity of 25 mwp / a in 2005, while U.S. First Solar and Uni - Solar both publicly announced profits in May 2005?.Therefore, one can speculate that its cost is close to the current level of crystalline silicon solar EV BATTERY.Similarly, many companies have published some cost statistics, especially the capital cost of the new production base.First Solar and Uni - Solar have recently reported capital expenditures for the new production base, with First Solar at $ 1.2 / WP and Uni - Solar at $ 2.5 / WP.Another relatively easy aspect of cost estimation is semiconductor materials.The cost of raw materials can be found in appendix 1 of document [ 7 ], and the estimation of active layer thickness can be found in other published documents.The utilization rate of materials varies greatly among different technical routes and is also an important indicator.
In addition to the process equipment and raw materials, the cost estimate should also include labor costs, power consumption and factory rent.The component balance BOM is the easiest to obtain because glass, metal sheets, plastic sheets and EVA are all conventional daily materials.Its quotation can be obtained from the Internet, suppliers or private exchanges.In many cases, common sense estimates can be made based on these input values.No value is absolute because the suppliers are different.The price will change according to the purchase amount and the cost will also change.For important cost components, special attention should be paid to cost estimation to ensure its rationality.
The non-part cost analysis is more challenging, but it can be estimated by literature, and it is relatively easy to distinguish trends, and other miscellaneous items need to be included.The maintenance cost of various technologies is assumed to be 4 % of the initial capital cost, and the capital cost per unit output power is considered to be based on the capital recovery factor CRF of 15 % per year.
We will also analyze the future cost based on the expectation of technological progress.For example, reducing the thickness of the active layer or increasing the material utilization rate of the process can reduce the cost.Faster film preparation speed, thinner active layer thickness and wider substrate can all increase production rate, thus reducing capital cost, maintenance cost, power consumption, factory rent and other costs.All of these analyses are helpful to analyze the change trajectory of future costs.
In many ways, private communication helps people understand the process details of thin film solar EV BATTERY.However, the author will use the confidential information in a general rather than specific way.This is why this information will not be included as a reference and a particular process will not belong to a particular company.The detailed data are helpful to confirm the accuracy of the final conclusion, while the author's cost analysis results are often close to or higher than those given by conferences, seminars and group discussions.
In all cases, the necessary common sense will be used.The cost value will not be used alone, but some experience and intuition will be applied comprehensively.
Is there any deviation in cost estimation?There will be deviations, but they will be within a reasonable range.Is there any deviation in the process flow?It may not be too big, except in the area of know - how.According to the author's judgment, the cost analysis results in this chapter based on the actual. 2 will differ from the actual cost by less than 20 %.For the so-called " third generation thin film solar EV BATTERY", the uncertainty of cost analysis is even greater, and we will particularly note it.Modeling of load demand due to EV battery charging in distribution systems
【K Qian, C Zhou, M Allan, Y Yuan - IEEE Transactions on Power …, 2011 - ieeexplore.ieee.org】Impact of EV battery chargers on the power quality of distribution systems
【JC Gómez, MM Morcos - IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 2003 - ieeexplore.ieee.org】Modeling of the cost of EV battery wear due to V2G application in power systems
【C Zhou, K Qian, M Allan, W Zhou - IEEE Transactions on …, 2011 - ieeexplore.ieee.org】A modular nondissipative current diverter for EV battery charge equalization
【NH Kutkut - … Conference and Exposition, 1998. APEC'98 …, 1998 - ieeexplore.ieee.org】A high frequency-link secondary-side phase-shifted full-range soft-switching PWM DC–DC converter with ZCS active rectifier for EV battery chargers
【T Mishima, K Akamatsu… - IEEE Transactions on …, 2013 - ieeexplore.ieee.org】Practical considerations for designing IPT system for EV battery charging
【CY Huang, JT Boys, GA Covic… - Vehicle Power and …, 2009 - ieeexplore.ieee.org】Wireless power transfer: A survey of EV battery charging technologies
【F Musavi, M Edington, W Eberle - … Conversion Congress and …, 2012 - ieeexplore.ieee.org】A statistical analysis of the effect of electric vehicle battery charging on distribution system harmonic voltages
【PT Staats, WM Grady, A Arapostathis… - IEEE Transactions on …, 1998 - ieeexplore.ieee.org】Ultra-thin minichannel LCP for EV battery thermal management
【LW Jin, PS Lee, XX Kong, Y Fan, SK Chou - Applied Energy, 2014 - Elsevier】Harmonic distortion caused by EV battery chargers in the distribution systems network and its remedy
【M Basu, K Gaughan, E Coyle - Universities Power Engineering …, 2004 - ieeexplore.ieee.org】Electric vehicle battery - WikipediaBattery electric vehicle - WikipediaList of electric-vehicle-battery manufacturers - WikipediaList of production battery electric vehicles - WikipediaNissan Leaf - WikipediaElectric car - WikipediaSolid-state battery - WikipediaElectric vehicle - WikipediaList of production battery electric vehicles (table) - WikipediaAmazon.com : 12V 100Ah lithium iron LiFePO4 Battery For EV, Car ...QTY8 VMAX XTR12-155 12V 155Ah AGM SLA Battery UpgradeAmazon.com: Amstron 12V / 33Ah Electric Vehicle Battery w/ NB ...Amazon.com: Amstron 12V / 18Ah Electric Vehicle VRLA Battery ...Amazon.com: Electric Vehicle Battery Systems: Sandeep DhamejaElectric Vehicle Battery Systems: Sandeep Dhameja ... - Amazon.comAmazon.com: VMAX XTR31-135 GEM EV Battery AGM Group 31 ...Amazon.com: Electric Car T-Shirt Electric Power Battery EV Owner ...10pc Battery Spacer 18650 Radiating Shell EV Battery Pack Plastic ...EV Battery - Home | FacebookEV Battery Center - Home | FacebookEV Battery Pack - Home | FacebookEV Battery - Home | FacebookWhat an EV battery maker says EEs need... - Power Electronics ...rEVoluti0n - Electric vehicle battery cost dropped 80% in... | FacebookNew Electric Vehicle Battery Sensor... - ECE Association Nitw ...Second life for retired EV batteries Do... - Hong Kong Meets AmericaEV Battery Forum (@EVBattForum) | TwitterSimon Moores on Twitter: "It's not just Tesla, @BYDCompany and ...Colin Mckerracher on Twitter: "Global EV lithium ion battery ...Colin Mckerracher on Twitter: "Umicore is ramping up its EV battery ...The Other Chris on Twitter: "Having a fun day with the Chemicals ...Jarkko Vesa on Twitter: ""Creating an electric vehicle battery value ...Lithiumionbull on Twitter: "No Doubt #lithium hydroxide is becoming ...American Manganese Inc. on Twitter: "China Launches Pilot EV ...Cory Groshek on Twitter: "#ElectricVehicle and #EV #battery ...