OPzV/OPZS series design uses a gel electrolyte and a tubular positive plate, along with a valve-regulated battery (maintenance-free) and open the battery (float / cycle life) and other advantages, especially for backup time 1-20 hours of use. Due to environmental restrictions against the use or maintenance conditions, OPzV/OPZS series for large differences in temperature and power grid unstable environment, or long-term renewable energy in electricity storage state of the electrical system. Colloid is made extremely small size, but the surface area of the silicon particles forming great. When the silicon particles are dispersed in the electrolyte, forming a three-dimensional network of chains, while derived from the 0.1mm to 1mm in diameter of the pore system. By strong capillary phenomenon to contain the electrolyte in the pore system is locked. Accidentally broken even if the battery case, electrolyte leakage phenomenon does not occur yet. A small amount of pores are not filled by the electrolyte, forming voids allow oxygen to pass through. Oxygen migrate from the positive electrode to the negative electrode, and then combined into the water, thus eliminating the need to add water regularly. Colloidal technology has revolutionized the concept of back-up power, allowing users to have more autonomy in different fields. Since the gas generating almost negligible level, allowing the battery to the cabinet or rack, even in the office next to the device. Thereby increasing the space utilization, reduce installation and maintenance costs. But we must pay attention to comply with safety and ventilation conditions of the country under the policy.
Recently, the dependence of photo-generated carrier mobility and recombination on time in organic OPZV/OPZS has been further studied [ 68 ].The active layer is prepared by spin coating, with MDMO - PPV as the hole acceptor and PCBM as the electron acceptor. The research method is the linearly increasing voltage charge extraction ( CELIV ) technique.At first, Celiv technology was developed to measure carrier transport in the dark. Carriers can be extracted by applying a linearly increasing voltage [ 69 ].In document [ 68 ], 3 ns laser pulses that can be highly absorbed can inject people to generate carriers.The temperature ranges from 120 K to 300 K ..In order to prevent injection from the electrode, reverse bias is applied after adjusting the delay time ( ZDD ) in the range of 1m11s.Within the delay time, carriers that have escaped twin pair recombination and have avoided bimolecular recombination have been detected.The results show that the dependence of carrier mobility on time follows the law of power function algebra, which is a characteristic of the tail relaxation of carrier energy distribution to Gaussian state density in an energy disordered organic jump system.The bimolecular recombination coefficient / 3 is no longer a constant, but depends on time and also follows the law of power function algebra because ( the gate is controlled by the diffusion of carriers.The experimental results show that the cold ⑴ / > ( 0 ratio does not depend on time and is close to Langevin's theoretical formula ( 8.15 ).
However, RR - P3HT ( 3 - hex yl - thiophene ) and PCBM with a mixing ratio of 1: 2 have completely different characteristics with respect to photogenerated carrier bimolecular recombination 11661.The sample thickness is 80100 nm, the product w of the absorption coefficient and the optical path length is 4.4, and the optical density CD is 1.9 according to formula ( 8.1 ).The transient photo-generated carrier response was measured. The laser pulse excited the sample was 3 ns and the maximum energy was 0.3 mJ / pulse. The measurement condition was that the resistance-capacitance time constant was much larger than the carrier transition time.At the highest human intensity, the normalized ratio of extracted charge to capacitance charge is close to 30. According to the extraction time, the bimolecular recombination coefficient cold = 2x10 - 13cm3 / s is calculated.Combined with the independently measured maximum carrier mobility " = 4x1 ( T3cm2 / VS, the sample is the same organic solar cell, and the test method is time-of-flight TOF technology.TOF measures the time it takes for particles, sound waves, electromagnetic waves, etc. to move a certain distance in a certain medium. Moving objects can be detected directly by ion mass spectrometry or indirectly by light scattering by laser Doppler velocimetry ( LDV ).The results show that bimolecular recombination coefficient and mobility can easily calculate the ratio = 5XIO " 11 VCM, which is about 4 orders of magnitude smaller than the ratio of 9 / given by Langevin's theoretical formula ( 8.15 ).This result well illustrates the great influence of donor-acceptor mixed morphology.Obviously, the self-alignment of the region regular arrangement instead of applying polythiophene chains will greatly reduce bimolecular recombination, as this will form a continuous interpenetrating network, thus establishing independent paths for electrons and holes.This will lead to a guess as to whether such a phenomenon is related to the decrease in the recombination rate of twin pairs that initially produce electron-hole pairs in the appropriate mixed composition.In any case, this confirms the important role of mesoscopic order in the mixed structure of organic OPZV/OPZS.
Theoretical Model of Exciton Separation
Before we begin to discuss the theoretical model of organic OPZV/OPZS, we need to summarize the experimental results.The exciton theory of conjugated polymer photon physics explains free carrier photogeneration in this way.By absorbing the incident light in the energy band, the conjugated polymer is excited to form a Frenkel singlet exciton?The binding energy EB is about 0.5 eV.The Frank - Condon state produced by photon absorption can be electron vibration relaxation, or human photon energy exceeds absorption edge and " heats up".Through the vibration process, the hot Frank - Condon state relaxes, the excess photon energy is transferred to the vibration excitation part, and excitons occupy the hot part.The condition for fast separation of these excitons into free electron-hole pairs is a medium external electric field strength [ 7173 ], while the electric field strength required for intrinsic separation of relaxed excitons is in the MV / cm range.However, the relaxed singlet exciton may be quenched and separated into twin electron-hole pairs at the charge transfer center.Typical charge transfer centers in conjugated polymers contain conjugated moieties and adjacent electron scavengers, i.e. deep electron traps.If the electron affinity of the electron scavenger is large enough to compensate for exciton binding energy, exciton separation at the charge transfer center may be achieved.
However, exciton quenching at the energy transfer center does not generate free carriers.On the contrary, twin electron-hole pairs with strong coulomb binding will be produced.It is estimated that the coulomb bound energy is about 0.5 eV, the distance between the conjugated moiety and the electron scavenger is about 1 nm, and the dielectric constant is about 3.This estimate shows that the binding energy of twin pairs is stronger than that of vibrational relaxation singlet excitons.This explains the troublesome important difference between photoluminescence quenching efficiency and photogenerated carrier generation rate in doped conjugated polymers [ 33' 36 ].When the photoluminescence intensity drops to about 0 when the quencher concentration is 1 %, effective charge generation requires a doping concentration greater than 10 % [ 31 ], and the probability of free carrier photogeneration in donor-acceptor mixing is much higher than that of uniformly doped polymer.
Ansag - Braun model
It seems to be possible to directly explain the photogeneration of carriers in donor-acceptor organic OPZV/OPZS by using the Onsager - Braun model, which is the twin pair correction of Onsager's theory.In 1934, Lars - Onzag proposed a theoretical model for infinite-life ion separation for weak electrolytes [ 74 ].In 1938, Onzag explained the problem that radiation-induced charge pairs recombine as soon as they collide with each other, that is, infinite sinking approximation [ 38 ].In 1984, Charles Braun considered the limited life of twin pairs [ 37 ], indicating that multistage drift of twin pairs can lead to complete escape from each other's Coulomb potential, or final recombination.This is related to hybrid organic OPZV/OPZS because the premise of effective photogeneration is that the donor-acceptor interface becomes the lowest energy level of the twin pair system and the twin pair has a limited lifetime.Prolongation of the lifetime of multistage drift twin pairs in any exciton - excimer - charge transfer state cycle will definitely increase the complete separation yield of twin pairs 7 ( 1, t ) depending on the electric field strength f and temperature t:
OQC with composition ratio of 20: 80.- PPV mixed with PCBM.The parameters used are: the spatial average of the relative dielectric constant < e > = 3.4, the initial pair spacing a = 1.3 nm, the limited twin pair life 1, and the dependence of the electric field strength in the experiment has repeatability.According to the temperature dependence measured under very low applied voltage ( 0.01 V ) and built-in voltage, the calculated activation energy is 94.1 MeV and 35.4 MeV, respectively, and then converted into electron-hole pair spacing of 4.511111 and 1211111, respectively, which is much larger than the average value of 1.5 nm based on the initial pair spacing " = = 1.311111".This difference is a common phenomenon in random organic systems and can be attributed to the intrinsic disorder structure ( see 184.108.40.206 Section ).Another problem is about the selected value of twin electron-hole pair or excimer precursor lifetime, which should be controlled by the nonradiative symmetry of twin pair and molecular vibration.The twin pairs of charge transfer centers have a life longer than that of excimer complexes, typically reaching 150 ns, which is still controversial and needs further experimental demonstration.
Although the disorder effect described by the Onzag - Braun model is self-consistent in parameterization and explains the photogeneration of carriers in bulk heterojunction organic OPZV/OPZS, people are not fully convinced by this theoretical model.At a critical dopant concentration that exceeds the photon harvesting and the full generation limit of the main electron-hole pair, the photogenerated carrier generation rate will suddenly increase, a phenomenon that cannot be explained by the Onzag - Braun model.The Onzag - Braun model can not explain the quantum yield increase in the morphology optimization system.In the following, we will further develop the exciton separation theory model to explain the exciton separation phenomenon that these Onzag - Braun models do not apply.
Zero Vibration Energy Model of Doped Polymer
At high dopant concentrations, the photo-generated carrier yield increases sharply, which can be attributed to two effects:
The formation of a random interpenetrating network is conducive to the leaping transport of electrons and holes.The donor phase and the acceptor phase start to separate partially or completely.so that better exciton separation will occur at the improved donor-acceptor interface.
Bipolar transport is obviously needed for complete carrier separation, but if exciton separation at the beginning of light harvesting is not effective enough, the quantum yield of organic OPZV/OPZS can hardly be improved.The complete exciton harvesting at the interface is the basic condition for effective carrier photogeneration, which requires the exciton diffusion length to be greater than or at least close to the maximum distance from the exciton to the nearest interface.By controlling the deposition of each layer, the optimized planar multilayer organic solar cell can meet such requirements.It is more difficult to control the morphology of donor-acceptor system of bulk heterojunction.
From the viewpoint of energy conservation, it is feasible in principle to separate relaxed excitons into free holes and localized electrons at the charge transfer center, provided that the energy level difference between the matrix and the lowest unoccupied orbital LUMO is greater than the exciton binding energy.However, this overall conclusion is not yet able to answer the questions raised by the relevant experimental results:
If the intermediate state is not included, the charge generation in the charge transfer center needs to be described as an adiabatic quantum mechanical transition. In the initial state, two carriers are bound in a singlet exciton on one chain, and in the final state, electrons are localized in the nearby LUMO. Holes occupy an on-chain state, and the distance between electrons and holes is further than the Onzag radius.About 20 nNi at room temperature.For exciton separation with a typical time of less than 100 fs, the corresponding matrix element is unlikely to be large enough.
If the energy requirements are met, the yield of excitons directly separated into free carriers should not depend on the external electric field strength or temperature.However, the measurement results show that the quantum yield is strongly dependent on the electric field strength, while the dependence on temperature is relatively weak, especially at low temperatures.
Because the charge transfer requirement is an adiabatic process, excess energy needs to be released directly and dissipated in the acceptor molecules occupied by the transferred electrons.Because the typical energy dissipation time is less than 100 fs, electrons are unlikely to escape from the coulomb potential well by jumping in such a short time, even when the acceptor molecule concentration is close to 50 % or more.Therefore, complete charge separation is possible due to the movement of the on - chain hole alone, but the value of the effective mass of the holes released in the deep-electric conjugate polymer is still unclear.Quantum chemical calculations performed in several polymers [ 14 ] show that we are about ( 0.030.08 ), where me is the free electron mass.Using such WEFF value in Equation ( 8.27 ) can get twin pair binding energy = - E0 close to zero, which means that twin pairs will be separated into free carriers immediately even in the absence of an applied electric field.However, the experimental study of dopant - assisted exciton separation reveals that quantum yield is strongly dependent on electric field strength [ 33,35.36 ].Another evidence that the effective mass of holes in the chain should take a larger value comes from the study of microwave conductivity of conjugated polymers?.The experimental results show that the mobility on the chain of the relaxed polaron is still not higher than 0.11 cm2 / vs, indicating that the effective mass of carriers is zne, while the mobility of the carriers just generated is as high as 1500 cm2 / vs.
We can explain the obvious contradiction between the calculation of the zero-point vibrational energy model and the experimental data, and we need to consider the difference in time scale between exciton separation and carrier transport in the chain.Exciton separation is a quasi-instantaneous process, and the state immediately after exciton separation is a molecular environment in which holes in the chain have not been structurally and electrically relaxed.In this case, the hole effective mass ZZM can actually reach the small value M given by the theoretical model of zero vibration energy.It is worth noting that the electric reflection experiment of single crystal polydiacetylene revealed the effective mass history of carriers in the chain.It is much smaller than the free electron mass 7 and is close to the theoretical calculation value of zero vibration energy [' 7 ].Since the time scale of polaron and vibration relaxation in the co-working polymer is less than 100 fs, we expect that the conductivity measurement at a longer time scale will only reveal the contribution of relaxation polaron.
Based on these facts, we can summarize the general process of exciton separation in charge transfer centers.Immediately after the negative charge is transferred from the polymer chain to the adjacent electron scavenger, holes in the non-relaxation chain with lighter effective mass occupy the ground state or an excited state of the potential well formed by the negative charge of the trapped electrons.Since the effective mass of the hole is still small before the polaron relaxes, the zero vibration energy must be relatively large, so the excess energy released in the deep electron trap is more inclined to the hole in the chain.In the fast polaron and vibration relaxation process of < 100 fs, the effective mass of holes in the chain increases to zn6, accompanied by the decrease of the zero vibration energy AE.According to equation ( 8.27 ), the reduction of zero vibration energy is:
Where " Shu" and " Shu" are respectively the transient effective mass and relaxation effective mass of holes.If = 0.03 ME, = 2ME, A = 0.5 nm, equation ( 8.29 ) gives AE 1.2 eV.Such excess energy will dissipate into the local vibration system, making this part of the system " hot" for the time being.As mentioned in the previous thermal exciton separation model, 72 ], holes in the chain will use this excess energy to escape the Coulomb potential well formed by the corresponding electrons and follow the Boltzmann thermal excitation release process.Since the initially occupied conjugated polymer fraction is " hot", the escape probability is only weakly dependent on the ambient temperature [ 723.However, the dependence of quantum yield on electric field strength remains strong because the applied electric field determines the height of the barrier, and holes need to exceed this height to be free.
It is worth mentioning that the above estimation of excess energy released by hole polaron relaxation in the chain can be consistent with other data, especially the typical excess photon energy required to start intrinsic thermal exciton separation [ 18' 78 ], as well as the electron affinity energy to provide effective exciton separation acceptor materials in organic donor-acceptor mixing.If the energy obtained by electron transfer is not large enough to provide enough energy for the zero vibration of temporarily lighter holes, we believe that the charge transfer process will be slower and directly generate holes or excimer complexes on the relaxation chain, both of which are not conducive to the final complete charge separation.In principle, such a zero-point vibration energy model viewpoint can explain the lower yield of excimer in MDMO - PPV / PCNEPV mixing ( see 220.127.116.11 Section ).8.3.3 Bipolar layer model of donor-acceptor interface As mentioned earlier, if the conjugated polymer is highly doped by electron acceptor ( polymer donor-electron acceptor mixture ), the photo-generated yield of intrinsic carriers can be increased to almost 100 %, provided that the morphology requirements are met [ 36' 57 ].In addition, such an effective exciton separation can be achieved even at moderate electric field strength and low temperature.This means a truly effective function to prevent twin pairs from recombination at the polymer donor-electron acceptor interface.The obvious difference between exciton separation in weakly doped polymer and strongly doped polymer is supported by some facts. Electron - hole pairs can be detected at low acceptor concentration. In the solution reaction of polymer, a large number of solvent molecules surround the reactant molecules, like a cage surrounding the reactant in the middle.The reactant molecules are alone in one solvent cage, and it is possible to extrude the solvent cage to another solvent cage after many collisions, and it is possible to encounter another reactant molecule.On the other hand, when the two reactant molecules are in the same solvent cage, repeated collisions will occur.Although the probability of the two reactants meeting becomes low, once they meet, they have a high collision frequency, which is not lower than the collision frequency in the gas phase reaction as a whole, so there are more chances of reaction. This phenomenon is called cage effect.
Energy level difference e' as a function of carrier effective mass, dark charge transfer parameter " take different values.As shown in actual. 17.It is worth mentioning that when the value of the effective mass of carriers is small enough and the energy level difference e - e is positive, the repulsive barrier separates the negatively charged electron acceptor and the hole occupying part of the polymer chain next closest to the interface, which can prevent the twin pairs from recombination and stabilize the interface twin pairs, provided that the effective mass zne ( < 0.2zne ).However, even if holes on the chain are transferred from the nearest interface polymer chain to the next nearest interface polymer chain, the effective mass and total energy of holes on the chain increase, which is weaker than without cage effect.According to Onzag's theory of twin pair recombination.Even if the attraction potential energy is reduced slightly, especially in the case of short distance, the separation probability will be greatly increased.This can explain the obvious increase in electron-hole pair separation when the acceptor concentration threshold is exceeded in PHP PV: PDL system.Therefore, when the effective mass of carriers is large, the cage effect should also be able to greatly increase the separation of twin opposite free carriers.
Because the bipolar model requires that polymer chains be completely parallel to the interface, at least the two polymer molecular layers closest to the interface, and also requires that the arrangement of electron acceptor molecules be ordered, the bipolar model has explained why the degree of order of the molecular arrangement near the internal donor-acceptor interface and the high concentration of electron acceptor are very important for organic OPZV/OPZS to achieve high conversion efficiency.The importance of zero vibration on the chain also gives the reason why polymer organic OPZV/OPZS have higher conversion efficiency than small molecular organic OPZV/OPZS.
Bipolar layer model explains the increase of photoproductivity caused by the increase of twins' separation rate constant under the condition of high acceptor concentration.Alternatively, we can also think that the higher acceptor concentration increases the electron permeation in the acceptor molecular array.However, if the twin pair separation rate constant does not increase, any change in carrier diffusion will not affect the twin pair separation and recombination trade - off.The bipolar model can also give several practical conclusions:
The interface morphology must have a strong influence on exciton separation yield, which has been confirmed by experimental results.The disordered structure of the interface is not conducive to exciton separation because it will reduce the zero vibration energy and thus damage the bottleneck of twin pair recombination.
The existence of a bipolar layer at the donor-acceptor interface facilitates exciton separation.Although it has been confirmed by the actual. 17 data that the degree of dark charge transfer has relatively little influence on exciton separation yield, the separation yield will increase with the increase of dark charge transfer parameter.Especially in the case of weak electric field strength.
Under the condition of medium electric field strength, effective exciton separation is also possible, provided that the potential barrier separates carriers in electron-hole pairs to prevent twin pairs from recombination.Such a model is not applicable to the so-called " double cable" polymer because the acceptor portion is directly attached to the main donor polymer chain [ 83 ].Therefore, the conversion efficiency of the dual-cable polymer organic solar cell predicted by the existing interface separation model is relatively low.
In order to make organic OPZV/OPZS have higher conversion efficiency, certain requirements need to be met in several aspects:
All major optical excitations reach the charge transfer center and produce metastable twin electron-hole pairs.The generated twin electron-hole pairs need to easily escape each other's Coulomb potential to avoid twin pair recombination.The released carriers are collected by the built-in electric field to avoid bimolecular recombination or deep energy level capture.
As the exciton binding energy of single-component organic solid is large, only the two-component system can satisfy the above first condition, so the energy of charge transfer state is lower than that of donor or acceptor excited singlet state.Effective light harvesting also requires that the exciton diffusion length be at least comparable to the length of the donor or acceptor phase.Because the exciton diffusion length is less than 10 nm, this sets an upper limit for the structure size of the hybrid system where phase separation occurs.In fact, a properly organized interpenetrating network can meet these requirements.
A problem still to be demonstrated is that twin electron-hole pairs are generated at the internal donor-acceptor interface and escape the detailed mechanism of Coulomb potential.One possible explanation for the experimental results is to use the Ansag - Braun model and think that the separation of electron-hole pairs has a limited lifetime.However, in order to explain the troublesome weak temperature dependence of quantum yield, it is necessary to assume that the final twin pair life is LMS, or to ensure that the rate constants of twin pair recombination and separation can be compared, as shown in Equation ( 8.19 ).In addition, the separation rate of twin pairs will be strictly proportional to the separation rate constant of twin pairs, and the separation rate constant of twin pairs will be determined by the coulomb bound energy of electron-hole pairs.This will mean unrealistic electron-hole pair spacing, but the disorder effect can alleviate this problem to some extent.
However, there is an urgent need for experimental studies on the dynamics of photogenic twin pairs to demonstrate whether the longevity of long twin pairs is a function of electron acceptor concentration.The Onzag - Braun model contains only two adjustable parameters: twin pair lifetime and electron-hole pair spacing, not acceptor concentration.On the other hand, we also know that quantum yield is strongly dependent on acceptor concentration.For a specific system such as PHP PV: PDL, an increase of more than 2 orders of magnitude in photo-generated carrier yield has indeed been observed.The cause of this phenomenon has not yet been satisfactorily explained. Whether this indicates that donor-acceptor mixing is beneficial to the main charge transfer, or whether it simply opens the electron transport path, thus reducing the recombination and space charge effects.
Another problem also needs to be clarified by further experiments. Whether the excess energy dissipated in the separation of excitons from twin electron-hole pairs is also conducive to the generation of electron-hole pairs with larger spacing.This seems to explain why the hybrid system should contain C6 … because the lowest unoccupied track LUMO is very low, C6.It is the strongest electron acceptor and is suitable for preparing high conversion efficiency organic OPZV/OPZS.On the other hand, it is observed that the photogenic quantum efficiency of PHP PV: PDI system can reach 20 people. It is worth mentioning that the spectral yield of this process is constant in the absorption spectrum of the whole hybrid system, while the optical band gap of the hybrid system is determined by the absorption of PDL.Obviously, there is not much difference between PDL excitation through fluorescence resonance energy transfer ( F6 RSEFRESONENTERYTRANSFER, FRET ) or through direct excitation.This proves that PDI excited singlet excitons are separated into PHP PV / PDL twins, regardless of how they are excited.Since the energy of PDI singlet excitons is only 2.2 eV, the excess energy must be small relative to the energy of electron-hole pairs.The same discussion applies to PFB: F8BT systems ( see 18.104.22.168 section ).Obviously, the order of magnitude of excess energy is a key parameter in designing organic OPZV/OPZS with high conversion efficiency.However, a systematic study of the possible effects of excess energy will help to understand the mechanism of electron-hole pair formation.
In the fluorescence resonance energy transfer FRET, the fluorescence spectrum of one fluorescent molecule ( called donor molecule ) overlaps the excitation spectrum of another fluorescent molecule ( also called acceptor molecule ), and the excitation of donor fluorescent molecule can induce the acceptor molecule to emit fluorescence while the fluorescence intensity of donor fluorescent molecule itself is attenuated.The intensity of FRET is closely related to the spatial distance between the donor molecule and the acceptor molecule, and FRET can occur at 710 nm.With the distance increasing, FRET decreased significantly.The intensity of FRET also depends on the degree of overlap between the donor emission spectrum and the acceptor excitation spectrum, as well as the relative orientation of the dipoles for energy transfer between the donor and the acceptor.
Recently, the theoretical model for explaining effective photogeneration in donor-acceptor mixing has been further developed, and at least one component of donor-acceptor mixing here is conjugate polymer ( 7t * - conjugate polymer ).The basic idea is that the carrier mobility is determined by the strong coupling between the electrical chains in the first time carriers are generated on the polymer chain, the mobility can reach a value of 103 ￠ 2 / $ #, and the effective mass is about 0.05 / 7 1.Due to the imperfect polymer chain, molecular vibration and carrier scattering caused by phonons, carriers will relax quickly in the sub - PS time scale, but this ultra-fast movement can ensure that the initial pair spacing of electron-hole pairs reaches several times the length of polymer chain repeating units.Such twin pairs will certainly suffer from twin pair recombination unless the coulomb potential is shielded.The bipolar layer established at the internal interface or potential energy change of the donor-acceptor heterojunction can act as a Coulomb potential shield.This will have a concomitant effect on the recombination of non-twin pairs, because the recombination of non-twin pairs also depends on the attraction of Coulomb potential.This shows the key role of morphology and control of organic OPZV/OPZS.Field experiences with VRLA-gel-batteries in stationary applications over a period of more than 20 years
【F Kramm - 2001 - IET】Float charging of valve regulated lead acid batteries-gel telecom batteries with integrated monitoring
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【W Rusch, M Schietmann - … Energy Conference, 2001. INTELEC …, 2001 - ieeexplore.ieee.org】Optimized battery charge control in PV-hybrid applications
【D Wolf, K Siemer, J Daza-Correa… - … (INTELEC), 2015 IEEE …, 2015 - ieeexplore.ieee.org】Telecom hybrid power battery management in full and partial state of charge
【G Bonduelle, W Coldrick, M Pope - … (INTELEC), 2011 IEEE 33rd …, 2011 - ieeexplore.ieee.org】Reliable Power Supply for Remote Telecom Facilities
【W Rusch, I Stahlkopf - Telecommunication-Energy Special …, 2009 - ieeexplore.ieee.org】VRLA batteries in telecom application: AGM or gel?
【G Bonduelle, X Muneret - Telecommunications Energy Special …, 2000 - ieeexplore.ieee.org】Opzs - WikipediaVRLA battery - WikipediaTalk:Float voltage - WikipediaDeep-cycle battery - WikipediaTalk:Lead–acid battery - WikipediaCustomers who viewed this also viewed - Amazon.comTubular OPzV Battery available now ！... - Solastra - Solar Power ...Chloride - C&D Tubular GEL (OPzV) SERIES C&D ... - Facebook2 VOLTS 600AH GEL (OPzV) Battery 24 PCS FOR 48VOLTS ...Our own-brand OPzV Tubular Gel... - Photonic Universe | FacebookSunlike OPzV Tubular Gel Battery 2V,... - Sunlike Energy ... - FacebookGEL+OPzV/OPzS Solar Battery Public Group | Facebookبطارية OPZV تيوبلر جِل 200ِAh تزن 84.5... - Sunrise Company شركة ...Battery GEL 2V OPzV VALVE REGULATED LEAD-ACID BATTERY ...مؤسسه المستقبل للكمبيوتر - قطاع الطاقه... - مؤسسة المستقبل ...#opzv hashtag on TwitterRolls Distribution on Twitter: "Rolls OPzV GEL series Valve ...Rolls Distribution on Twitter: "INTRODUCING THE NEW S2-3458 ...OpZv (@op_zv) | TwitterAZoCleantech on Twitter: "Eternity Technologies, NorthStar Battery ...Ritar-traction (@TractionRitar) | TwitterSolar Battery on Twitter: "It's a little expensive！CSPOWER OPzV ...Global Sources on Twitter: "Check out CSPower's OPzV #batteries ...Solar Battery (@843225142Leo) | TwitterImprovements to the Hybrid2 battery model
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【TM Layadi, G Champenois, M Mostefai… - … Modelling Practice and …, 2015 - Elsevier】Batteries for telecommunications systems powered by solar energy
【K Gutzeit - Telecommunications Energy Conference, 1986 …, 1986 - ieeexplore.ieee.org】Flooded (Vla), Sealed (Vrla), Gel, Agm Type, Flat Plate, Tubular Plate: The When, Where, And Why. How Does The End User Decide On The Best Solution?
【W Rusch, K Vassallo, G Hart - … & BAE Batterien GmbH BAE Corporate …, 2006 - solarisps.com】Battery backup for telecom: how to integrate design, selection and maintenance
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【R Wagner, M Schroeder, T Stephanblome… - Journal of power …, 1999 - Elsevier】Selection of telecom batteries
【W Rusch, M Schietmann - … Energy Conference, 2001. INTELEC …, 2001 - ieeexplore.ieee.org】Suitable energy storage in Off-Grid systems
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