UPS is for short of Uninterruptible Power Supply. Because when the power supply shuts down, it will switch to the inversion status quickly, to prevent the working computers from losing important documents due to the unexpected power off, and fail to save. It is not used as backup power. If you are just willing to use while power off, an inverter will do. Mostly in home UPS system, it is always maintenance free type lead acid battery. In ideal conditions, to extend the battery life, is to keep the battery in “floating charge” status or constant voltage charge status.
Charge Voltage 2.275V/Cell
Charge Temperature 20℃
Discharge Temperature -15℃- +50℃
1. While in floating charge, please use voltage at 2.275V/Cell(20℃ condition value), to do constant voltage charge or constant current charge under 0.002CA. When the temperature under 0℃ or over 40℃, it is necessary to adjust the charging voltage, take 20℃ as a start point, temperature changes 1℃, single cell voltage adjust -3mV.
2. While in cycle charge, charging voltage as 2.40-2.50V/Cell(20℃ condition value), to do constant voltage. When the temperature under 5℃ or over 35℃, take 20℃ as start point, temperature charges 1℃, adjust -4mV/Cell.
First period, charging current is under 0.25CA.
The temperature(under 5℃) lower, charging time is longer. The temperature(over 35℃) higher, it is easily to get over charged. So especially when cycle use, it is better to charge between 5℃ to 30℃.
To avoid over charge, it is necessary to install charge timer, or automatically change into trickle charge status.
The temperature should be managed between -15℃ to 40℃.
The temperature should be managed between -15℃ to 50℃ while discharge.
Constant discharge current should be under 3CA (managed to be under 6CA)
Discharge end voltage changes according to current, generally as below. Note that the voltage cannot be lower than below voltages.
After discharge, please charge back in a short time. If over discharge occasionally, please charge back immediately.
Discharge Current Discharge End Voltage
Under 0.2CA 1.75V/Cell
0.2CA – 0.5CA 1.70V/Cell
0.5CA – 1.0CA 1.55V/Cell
Over 1.0CA 1.30V/Cell
Please follow below instructions when install batteries.
1.1 DO NOT install battery in a sealed room or near fire, or it is risky to cause explosion or fire disaster.
1.2 DO NOT use vinyl type film, which is easy to cause static electricity, to cover the battery. It is risky to cause explosion when static electricity occurs.
1.3 DO NOT install the battery wherever might water come in, or else it may cause electric shock or fire disaster.
1.4 DO NOT install the battery beyond -40℃ to 60℃ environment.
1.5 DO NOT use battery in a dusty environment, or it will cause short circuit.
1.6 Take care of the ventilation when install the battery in cabinet.
1.7 DO NOT use stick or label cover the top cover. There is gas leak under the top, the gas generated from battery inside will not escape.
1.8 Quantity in parallel – While in floating charge, plug-in type terminal battery only allowed using 3 rows. Screws type no limit, but more stable if less in parallel. Besides, while in parallel, it is necessary to consider the connector resistance same. As to keep the balance in different battery rows, please do not use over 3 rows in field.
1.9 Use different capacity, old or new, different factory produced batteries, as their performance difference may cause the electric appliance broken. Please avoid this situation.
1. Storage temperature should be between -20℃ to 40℃.
2. Storage battery should be fully charged status. Due to energy loss in transportation or storage, please recharge before use.
3. For long time storage, as to make up the self-discharge, please recharge.
Please avoid to storage the battery under 40℃ condition, as it is bad effected to the battery.
4. Please storage under dry, low temperature, good ventilation environment.
5. If battery package is wet while in transportation or storage, please remove the package immediately or it will cause battery discharge or burn terminals.
1. Check the batteries timely, if there is any dust or dirty condition, please use water wet cloth to remove the dirt. DO NOT use organic solvent such as gasoline or banana oil, chemic fabric is also not allowed.
2. While in float charge, the total voltage or meter voltage is under the standard voltage, should find the reason and handle the problem.
UPS Battery – Battery Life
Even UPS uses same battery technology, different factory produced battery lives a lot different. This is very important to end customer, because battery cost is very high (approx. 30% of UPS sale price). Battery problem will cause system stability, which is very annoying.
Temperature has big influence to the battery natural aging. Detail experimental data shows that every increase of 5 degree, battery life reduces 10%. So UPS should be design to keep the battery life. All online type and backup/online hybrid produce more heat than backup type and this is an important reason why backup type UPS is in a longer cycle of battery replacement.
Battery charger is a very important part of UPS system. Batteries’ charge condition has big influence on battery life. If the battery is always under constant voltage or “floating charge” condition, then its life could be highly increased. In fact, charging status battery life is much longer than storage status. Because charge can suspend battery natural aging progress, keep battery in charging whether UPS running or not.
Battery is made up of single “original unit”, every single unit is 12V. Original units in string to make higher battery pack, one 12V battery is made up by 6 single original cells, 24V battery is made up of 12 pieces single original cells, etc. When UPS battery is in charge, every original unit will be also charged. A little difference in performance will cause some original units’ voltage is higher than others; these units will age in advance. Then if one battery unit performance low down, the whole battery pack performance will low down. Experiments shows battery life is related with string quantity, battery voltage higher, aging faster. At a certain UPS battery capacity, battery voltage is better to be designed lower, at this condition, batter life the longest. Some factories’ UPS battery voltage higher, it is because when capacity confirmed, voltage higher, current lower, then choose thinner wires and lower power semi-conductor, then reduce UPS cost. 1KVA UPS battery voltage is always at 24V to 96V.
In ideal condition, to extend UPS battery life, should keep the battery always in floating charge status or constant voltage status. At this condition, battery will absorb very small charging current; it is called floating or self-discharge current. Although battery manufacturers recommended, some UPS design to make the battery afford extra small current, which is called ripple wave current. Ripple wave current is produced when battery supply constant current to inverter, according to conservation of energy, inverter has to input DC current to produce AC current. In this situation, battery made a small cycle, frequency is double as the output frequency.
Common backup type/ online type or backup/ ferromagnetic UPS will not produce ripple wave current, other design UPS will make various ripple wave currents. It can be known by checking the UPS structure drawing.
If UPS battery is between the charger and inverter, then battery will have ripple wave current. This is common double switch UPS.
If use pick-off diode, relay, converter, or rectifier to separate the battery and inverter, then battery will not produce ripple wave current.
Battery the least stable part in UPS system, UPS design directly affects battery stability. Keep the battery always in charging status (even if UPS down), will extend battery life. Avoid choosing high voltage UPS, some UPS design will produce ripple wave current, made extra over heat. Mostly battery in similar condition, but different design will apparently affect battery life. One unit battery is 12V, UPS need 96V, which means 8 units. Server 780W, 20% bonus, approx. 1000W, 2 hours, single unit is 20AH; we can choose 8 units rated capacity at 24AH.
There are various brand, most people choose local manufacturer, legal factory, quality assurance, long life span, cost-worthy.
UPS Battery – Charge Time
To a backup battery, when battery in power supply, the time to charge to full, is always no less than 24 hours; To cycle use battery, if previous discharge power and charge current are known, the charge time could be calculated by below formula at 25℃ condition.
UPS battery common terms
1. Over Discharge: continue discharge when battery voltage under end voltage
2. Recover Charge: prepare for next discharge, charge the battery to recover capacity
3. Over Charge: continue charge after fully charged status
4. Full Discharge: discharge battery to end voltage according to stipulated current
5. Nominal Voltage: means battery normal voltage in use, always a little lower than initial voltage
6. Cycle Service System: use method of discharge after full charge as a circle
7. Maximum Discharge Current: max current battery can discharge, in condition of no distortion, abnormal appearance, or pole fusing.
8. Self Discharge: battery capacity leak reduce, in no out power supply condition
9. Nominal Capacity: at standard temperature, discharge current and end voltage condition, amp hour energy can supply by fully charged battery
10. Hour Rate: time rate according to constant discharge current to end voltage, always use hour as unit to indicate battery capacity.
11. Actual Capacity: battery actual capacity according to a certain hour rate.
12. Trickle Charge: to make up for battery self-discharge, in no load condition, constant small charge current to charge.
13. Floating Charge: battery and load connect to rectifier charge in parallel, charge keeps charging to battery at a stable voltage. When it is power off, or load changes, battery can supply power directly to load without interruption.
14. Constant Voltage Charge: the charge method of keep stable voltage between terminals.
15. Constant Current Charge: the charge method of constant charge current
16. Stand-by Use: always in charge status, floating charge or tickle charge, in case of emergency.
17. Internal Resistance: battery inside total resistance
18. Cut-off Voltage of Discharge: end voltage according to different discharge current and battery types
19: Capacity Conservation Performance: after battery fully charged, the remain capacity after a certain time in open circuit status
20. Internal Short-Circuit: inside battery, positive and negative plates short circuit
UPS battery is one important part of UPS power supply, if battery not installed after purchase, please note below in storage:
(1) DO NOT storage battery in temperature beyond -20℃ to +50℃.
(2) Storage battery should be fully charged status. Due to energy loss in transportation or storage, please recharge before use.
(3) For long time storage, as to make up the self-discharge, please recharge.
Please avoid to storage the battery under 40℃ condition, as it is bad effected to the battery.
(4) Please storage under dry, low temperature, good ventilation environment.
(5) Battery performance decays in storage, please arrange usage in short time.
(6) If battery package is wet while in transportation or storage, please remove the package immediately or it will cause battery discharge or burn terminals.
(7) Check the batteries timely, if there is any dust or dirty condition, please use water wet cloth to remove the dirt. DO NOT use organic solvent such as gasoline or banana oil, chemic fabric is also not allowed.
UPS battery pack replacements is using reversal stop character of diode, make voltage difference between new pack and old pack manually. When new battery in, old battery out, use diode as electrical switch, supply power to DC main line instantly, avoid the battery voltage difference produce circle current, ensure the stability of DC power supply. In the meantime, avoid the unsafe factor due to the main line no power supply in battery switch procedure.
The method is:
1. Charger 2#U stop running, remove UPS battery pack GB’ fuse FU.
2. Connect diode (2CZ 200A/800V) to A & C terminals of fuse FU5.
3. Check connection complete, then recover fuse FU.
4. Remove fuse FU5, diode V connect in circuit, combine SA3, check negative – WOM voltage is approx. 241V, positive – WOM voltage approx. 218V, diode reverse cut-off. Main line is powered by charger 1#U, battery pack GB, and GB’. As battery pack GB’ voltage lower, DC load powered by charger 1#U, battery pack GB.
5. Disconnect SA1, remove fuse FU3, FU4, Battery pack GB’ instantly supply power to main line through diode V.
6. Run charge 2#U, adjust voltage to nominal, main line is powered by charger 2#U, battery pack GB’ in parallel.
7. Remove old battery pack GB, connect positive and negative wires to charge 1#U positive &negative terminals.
8. Run charger 1#U, make it and old battery pack in parallel, voltage 241V.
9. Stop charger 2#U, battery pack GB’ voltage low down to 235V in a short time.
10. Combine SA1, charger 1#U, old battery pack GB, new battery pack GB’ in parallel, power supply to main line.
11. Disconnect SA3, remove new battery pack GB’.
12. Connect diode V to FU3.
13. Insert FU4, charger 1#U, new and old battery pack power supply to main line.
14. Disconnect SA1, new and old battery pack power supply to main line through diode V.
15. Install fuse FU3, diode V is short. Now diode is now longer useful, remove it.
16. Remove old battery pack.
17. Connect SA1, charger 1#U and new battery pack, power supply to main line in parallel.
Use in marine equipment, cable television, emergency lighting system, backup power supply, large UPS and computer backup power plant, electric wheelchair, golf cart, electric fork lift, trail system, power plant, electricity system.
Sunbright Power, leading manufacturer focused in design and produce maintenance free sealed lead acid battery in China. The company registered capital of 8 million USD, with a total investment 70 million USD. It covers an area of 220 acres, 70,000 square meter production plant, and annual production capacity of one million KVAh.
The batteries made by Sunbright include backup batteries applied in telecommunications, Power Plant, UPS battery, fire alarm system, emergency lighting and efficient energy storage batteries used in solar energy, wind energy and, as well as motive power batteries for electric vehicles, golf carts, electric forklift, electric traction trucks and other fields. All products are CE certificated, UL certificated, and TLC, ROSH certificated.
SBB has won good reputation from market. In the year 2008, SBB is the only power supplier for Mount Everest section of Olympic torch route.